25  Moiré wave patterns as the own language of the brain   Alexey Alyushin <aturo@mail.ru> (Philosophical Faculty, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia)
   My hypothesis is that the own language of the brain is the dynamical geometry of bioelectrical wave patterns of the moiré origin. The moiré effect is produced by superposing of two or more periodical structures, like hardbody or graphical lattices or oscillatory wave sets, launching them into move in relation to each other, and obtaining an emergent (called alias) structure out of this superposition in move. There are a number of regular wave oscillations in brain, comprising the whole set of wave bands. Brain oscillations correspond to sequences of frames, being the synchronized in firing, although spatially dispersed, transient constellations of neurons (F. Varela). Given the existence of several oscillatory wave structures and the corresponding flows of frames in the brain, the suggestion is due that multiple overlays of rhythmical oscillations or frame flows should produce moiré patterns within their entire manifold. The question is what might be the function of these patterns. I suggest that moiré patterns are far not the distortive noise within a system, as they are commonly approached to in the TV and photo imaging technique; and they are not just empty by-products of some master process within the brain. They themselves are driving gears of brain working, the meaning-containing and meaning-processing units. The function of the lower-order brain oscillations is to bring about and to keep active the higher-order moiré patterns. The most important thing about moiré patterns is that they are emergent structures in respect to those oscillatory patterns that underlay them. They are emergent in a sense that their structure is not contained in either of the underlying patterns; they are entities in themselves. Although with the change or fading of underlying oscillatory patterns the emergent pattern also changes or vanishes. I go further and suggest that the emergent moiré pattern might steer the underlying oscillations for the sake of its own self-sustention. It can well be so that at the early stages of the brain evolution only the lower-order oscillations were present in primitive brains providing for the basic perceptive data processing. But as the brain was developing into a more complex unit and proceeded to generate and to serve the higher mental functions, the formerly derivative and rudimentary moiré phenomena unveiled their abilities and acquired the master control. Enduring and self-sustained wave formations of the moiré origin in the brain are good candidates for being considered as the neural correlates of cognitive and mental structures, including consciousness. If we compare the moiré model with the holographic model of the brain (K. Pribram and others), the first will look advantageous for introducing dynamics. The holographic model is mostly static, dealing with distribution of wave interferences in space, whereas the moiré model stresses the temporal aspect of interaction of wave structures. As a matter of fact, it also deals with interferences, but in their temporal dynamics. Therefore, the holographic model and the moiré model could productively accompany each other. (Some visual moiré patterns will be generated and demonstrated during the presentation by means of computer simulation).   C

26  What could possibly count as a physical explanation of consciousness ? the view from the inside and the Bekenstein bound.   Uzi Awret <uawret@cox.net> (Falls Church, Va.)
   In 1992 in the “Times Literary Supplement” Jerry Fodor laments. “Nobody has the slightest idea how anything material could be conscious. Nobody even knows what it would be like to have the slightest idea about how anything material could be conscious. So much for the philosophy of consciousness.” 20 years later in an article destined for the ‘Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science’ Ned Block claims that: “There are two reasons for thinking that the Hard Problem has no solution. 1. Actual Failure. In fact, no one has been able to think of even a highly speculative answer. 2. Principled Failure. The materials we have available seem ill suited to providing an answer. As Nagel says, an answer to this question would seem to require an objective account that necessarily leaves out the subjectivity of what it is trying to explain. We don’t even know what would count as such an explanation.” The purpose of this paper is to respond to Fodor and Block’s challenge by producing a highly speculative physical theory that can count as a possible physical explanation of consciousness. The biggest problem in attempting to conceive of a physical explanation of consciousness is not the irreducible need to sweep certain difficult issues under the carpet. That is true to some degree for any physical explanation. The problem is to conceive of the carpet. The approach taken by this paper will be to: 1)Establish the possible existence of physical singularities in the brain assumed to be created by informational self interaction and informational self collapse by taking advantage of the shifting and vague line of demarcation separating physical interaction and information theoretic communication. 2)Adopt John Wheeler and Bryce DeWitt’s ‘black hole bounce’ which allows for the possibility of a whole new universe in the singularity at the center of certain black holes. This will provide us with a ‘view from the inside’ that is completely inaccessible from an ‘outside’ that has no room for it. 3) Subject questions about the nature of that space, especially the possibility of a phenomenal nature, to a radical suspension. A radical suspension is not a temporary suspension employed for tactical reasons but a more permanent suspension of the type that physicists or mathematicians adopt in the exploration of singularities. 4)Use our knowledge of neural architecture and the physics of brains to establish the conditions that would enable the emergence of such singularities based on 1). For example, if some brain region with a volume of one cubic centimeter was made to contain more than 10exp(60) bits of information it would have to be a singularity because of the Bekenstein Bound. 5)Conceive of an experiment that is capable of verifying 4) in real brains and establish the existence of such singularities as a minimal NCC. (Neural Correlates of Consciousness.) This paper claims that if 1) through 5) are satisfied than it is possible to furnish at least one possible physical explanation of consciousness despite the radical suspension imposed by 3) precisely because singularities can be explored from the outside in the same way that physics can determine the Chandrasekhar Limit and the Schwarzschild Radius of black holes from the outside. This approach is compatible with Kant’s Transcendental Epistemology which seeks to determine the scope and limits of knowledge from the inside. (See Janic and Toulmin’s Wittgenstein’s Viena.) A mature science is one which explores its own limitations. Instead of attempting to establish the general conditions of possibility that would have to be satisfied in order to produce a scientific explanation of consciousness the paper will end with a putative token singularity based physical theory of consciousness that is capable of satisfying 1) to 5).   C

27  Identifying the Interaction between the Quantum and Classical World as the Blue Print for Conscious Activity in Cognitive Vision Systems.   Wolfgang Baer <baer@nps.edu> (Informaton Sciences, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California)
   I present a physically viable mind/body model based upon Whiteheads assumption that events called “actual occasions” are conscious and fundamental building blocks of the universe. This building block is a process connecting first person experience with its explanation and is independent of any belief system defining reality for an individual. I will select quantum theory as a physically viable reality belief and will show that in this case consciousness is identified within its measurement and state preparation cycle. I generalize this result by identifying the architecture of the interaction between the quantum and classical world is the blue print for conscious activity. According to this theory consciousness itself can be modeled by a cycle of activity required to transform a description of experience into a description of the physical reality causing the experience in any model of reality we chose to believe. It is not the specific model of physical reality but rather the activity of reading from and writing into the model that captures the essence of consciousness phenomena, and such activities can be found in all systems and from microscopic to cosmological scales. As a practical application I will then identify the conscious process in cognitive vision systems being developed to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle operations at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey Ca. By recognizing the conscious process executed by man-in-the loop systems and identifying the cognitive algorithms being executed, we can automate the process by systematically transferring human to machine operations. I will conclude by presenting the results of target mensuration and vision understanding experiments utilizing sensor report to database explanation transforms that implement Whiteheads actual occasions   C

28  Characteristics of Consciousness in Collapse-Type Quantum Mind Theories  Imants Baruss <baruss@uwo.ca> (Psychology, King's University College, London, Ontario, Canada)
   Whereas there has been considerable effort expended to develop the technical aspects of quantum mind theories, little attention has been paid to what must be the nature of consciousness for such theories to be true. The purpose of this paper is to rectify that imbalance by looking at some of the apparent characteristics of consciousness in some of the theories in which consciousness is said to collapse the state vector (Baruss, in press, for a review of such theories), on the understanding that decoherence can not entirely solve the measurement problem (Adler, 2003). Three characteristics become immediately apparent. The first is a volitional aspect of the mind that needs to be distinguished from awareness or observation (Baruss, 1986; Walker, 2000). Some insights about this notion of will can be gleaned also from evidence outside the quantum mind context that intention can affect physical systems (e.g., Jahn & Dunne, 2005). The second characteristic is the stratification of consciousness so that the experiential stream that goes on privately for a given person needs to be distinguished from a universal deep consciousness, somewhat akin to David Bohm’s implicate order (Bohm & Hiley, 1993), that might underlie ordinary consciousness. Thus, the question arises regarding quantum mind theories of the relative contributions of deliberately intentional acts that occur within one’s experiential stream (cf. Stapp, 2004; 2005) and nonconscious coordinated intentions implicit in deep consciousness (cf. Goswami, 1993, 2003; Walker, 1970, 2000). Support for introducing such stratification also comes from modelling anomalous human-machine interactions such as the M5 theory of Robert Jahn and Brenda Dunne (2001) as well as from reports of apparently direct participation in such deep consciousness (e.g., Baruss, 2003, Merrell-Wolff, 1994, 1995). Third, in transferring the notion of the collapse of the state vector from the context of observation in experimental physics to manifestation of everyday life, the temporally discrete nature of such collapse is usually retained so that ordinary waking state consciousness would actually be discontinuous. This suggests the possibility of a flickering universe (cf. Matthews, 2000) whereby physical reality, including its spatial features, arises from a pre-physical substrate, perhaps at the rate of once per Planck time. This idea is consistent with efforts to liberate quantum theory from classical restrictions (e.g., Durr, 2005; Aerts & Aerts, 2005; Mukhopadhyay, 2006) and with speculations about Planck-scale physics (cf. Ng, 2003; Ng & van Dam, 2005). Although these particularly need to be judged critically, there are also some reports of the direct apperception of the discontinuous arising of physical reality from a pre-physical substrate in altered states of consciousness (e.g., Wren-Lewis, 1988; 1994). A volitional aspect of mind, the stratification of consciousness, and discontinuity of the ordinary waking state are some of the characteristics of consciousness implicit in some collapse-type quantum mind theories.  C

29  A four-dimensional hologram called consciousness  James Beichler <jebco1st@aol.com> (Physics, Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, West Virginia University at Parkersburg, Belpre, Ohio)
   The reality of a fourth spatial dimension is now being established in science. The fourth dimension of space is magnetic in nature and thus offers a suitable medium for the storage of memories in mind and consciousness. Consciousness also emerges as a holographic magnetic potential pattern in the fourth dimension. When the passage of time is added to the picture, consciousness becomes a holomovement in five-dimensional space-time. The magnetic potential pattern is induced in the higher dimension by the electrical activity of microtubules (MTs). Each MT is an individual quantum magnetic inductor. When successive MTs inside an axon ‘fire’ in sequence they induce a unique and complex magnetic potential pattern in the higher-dimensional extension of the three-dimensional material brain. This pattern of magnetic potential in the higher-dimensional field constitutes holographically stored memories that can be retrieved by the brain through a reverse process. The vast complexity of the different stored memory patterns constitutes the consciousness of an individual. On the other hand, MTs within different neurons, neuron bundles and neural nets also act coherently to form individual thoughts and streams of thought within the brain. Coherence is established as the inductor-MTs in individual neurons act in concert with axon wall-capacitors to form a complex of microscopic LRC (tuning) circuits. Each MT-axon wall circuit resonates with similar MTs in a complex pattern of neurons, thus establishing and maintaining coherence within the brain.   C

30  Disambiguation in conscious cavities  James Beran <jimberan@earthlink.net> (Richmond, Virginia)
   Using information-based causal principles to work back from our conscious experience, we can develop models of how consciousness might be produced. This paper discusses one such model that can be tied to features found in cerebral cortex and possibly also in other parts of the brain. In this model, neural signals with ambiguous sensory information are received at an input level of a multi-level structure, and, in response, output neural signals, which can be thought of as disambiguated results, are provided at an output level of the structure; between or around the input and output levels is a region in which neural signals interact with conscious information to disambiguate the sensory information and obtain the results. This combination of features can be modeled as a cavity, by rough analogy to certain optical cavities. Disambiguation has mathematical similarities to separation or collapse of an entangled system (referred to herein as "disentanglement") [1], and these similarities suggest that the disambiguating interactions could include disentanglement events that affect disambiguated results. This paper compares disentanglement effects with other mechanisms that could plausibly affect disambiguation in such a cavity, such as action potentials traveling along lateral axons or electromagnetic effects resulting from action potentials. One point of comparison is whether each type of interaction is consistent with known features of cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain. Another is whether evolution could and did produce neural structures in which conscious information could have each type of interaction; this paper therefore examines mutations that might have enabled DNA to produce such neural structures. Even though we may not find a sharp evolutionary divide between our non-conscious and conscious ancestors, the emergence of such neural structures would suggest when earlier forms of consciousness emerged. [1] Bohm, D. and Hiley, B.J., The Undivided Universe, 1993.  C

31  A General Quantum-Gravitational Scaling Strategy Connecting Different-Dimensional Fluxes   Bernd Binder <binder@quanics.com> (Quanics.com, Salem, Germany)
   The paper will present a unique view about the scaling of different-dimensional quantum fluxes and wave functions, which allows to understand and predict the geometric structure and dynamics of (neuronal) networks able to interact via local and non-local quantum-gravitational processes. It is nowadays commonly agreed that the weakness of gravity can in general be assigned to extra-dimensions (holographic principle). Further, it can be argued that an extra-dimensional interface can provide for the necessary coherence and stability (cooling) for lower-dimensional topologies and structures in a thermodynamic sense. To connect, adjust, or transform different-dimensional flux topologies it will be shown that it is the intrinsic unit scale (and not the semi-classical Planck scale) that can build the reference-bridge between the scaling laws of different fields. Therefore, defining the quantum-gravitational fields carrying this intrinsic unit scale dynamics, insures that any power law scaling with or without extra-dimensions will intersect at this scale (since any power of 1 is 1). In this manner it can be shown that different-dimensional interaction fluxes follow a general spatio-temporal scaling scheme on all scales, which can be found on the cosmic scale as Kepler’s 3rd law and on the quantum scale as Compton’s law. The necessary transformations of the general spatio-temporal scaling scheme can be quantified on a pure geometric ground, where relevant physical properties are the signal dynamics given by the spatio-temporal metric adjusted to the proper number and mass scaling encoding a closed holographic system. Finally, it will be shown that living things, brains, cells, and molecular clusters in the mid-scale are well-designed to focus, transform, and project weak extra-dimensional and non-local gravitational fluxes onto strong low-dimensional currents in (neuronal) network channels pumping, driving, and triggering local electromagnetic processes.  C

32  Combining prototypes: quantal macrostates and entanglement  Reinhard Blutner <blutner@uva.nl> (ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
   Classical truth-functional semantics and almost all of its modifications have a serious problem in treating prototypes and their combination. Though some modelling variants can fit many of the puzzling empirical observation, their explanatory value is seldom noteworthy. I will argue that the explanatory inadequacy is due to the Boolean characteristic of the underlying semantics, which only allows mixing possible words but it excludes the idea of superposition crucial for geometrical models of meanings. In the main part, I will present a quantal model of combining prototypes. The model elaborates a recent proposal by Aerts & Gabora (2005) and systematically explores an orthoalgebraic approach to propositions as subspaces of an underlying Hilbert space. The quantum model is a minimalist variant of a classical possible world approach and rest on four general assumptions: (1) concepts are superpositions of linearly independent base states that conform to possible worlds; (2) typicality is represented by quantum probabilities; (3) combinations of concepts are calculated as tensor products; (4) there is a diagonalization operation involved, which leads to states that entangle the prototypical properties of the involved concepts. I demonstrate that the model can predict the basic findings on combined prototypes without further stipulations. Firstly, this concerns the existence of the “conjunction effect of typicality” (goldfish is a poorish example of a fish, and a poorish example of a pet, but it's quite a good example of a pet fish) and secondly the strength of this effect (in case of "incompatible conjunctions" such as pet fish or brown apple the conjunction effect is greater than in "compatible conjunctions“ such as red apple). In the final part, I will reflect the philosophical background and look for possible generalizations. In agreement with Aerts & Gabora (e.g. 2005), Chalmers (1995), beim Graben & Atmanspacher (2006) I suppose that the emergence of quantal macrostates does not necessarily require the reference to corresponding quantal microstates. Instead, complementary observables (traditionally restricted to quantum systems) can arise in classical systems as well. Crucial is the concept of generating partitions in the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems: a partition is generating if it divides the state space into regions prescribed by the dynamics of the system, thus permitting the definition of states that are stable under the dynamics. Complementary observables can arise in classical systems whenever the partitioning of the corresponding state space is not generating (Graben & Atmanspacher, 2006). The composition of classical systems with generating partitions can lead to a complex system with quantal characteristics. That is true for conjoined prototypes, and it’s perhaps also true for semantic systems that combine the effects of contexts and possible worlds (see Kaplan’s (1979) two-dimensional semantics of demonstratives). Interestingly, diagonalization is admitted in this case too, whereas certain other operations (“monsters”) are forbidden. Quantum Theory can explain the admission of constraints due to the unitary character of quantal evolution.   C

33  toward a new subquantum integratio approac to sentient reality   Robert Boyd, Dr. Adrian Klein, MDD <rnboyd@iqonline.net> (Princeton Biotechnologies, Inc., Knoxville, TN)
   Recent experimental results have proved intractable to explanation by resorting to existing physics paradigms. This fact, along with certain fallacies inherent in mainstream physical-cognitive theories of mind, have encouraged the authors of this paper to transcend the currently operative limits of investigation, thus to explore the abyssal depth of the still uncharted, but highly rewarding, SubQuantum regimes. The subquantum is herein assumed to co-existentially accommodate proto-units for matter, energy and Information, which are thereby brought onto an equal ontological footing, in the subquantum domains. Devolving its argumentation and orientation from the Nobel Prize winning Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, which opened the perspective toward a further divisibility of the Quantum domain, hitherto considered as an irreducably fundamental description of nature, the hereby proposed inter-theoretic model claims to satisfy advanced scientific and philosophic requests, as reformulated for a conceptually new working hypotheses. Subquantum potentials evolving in the Prime Radiation Matrix result in organizing functions able to interfere with classical local determinacy chains, operating at the Quantum levels of randomity inherent in space-time-like matter configurations, leading to highly complex representational patterns, linked to their phenomenal correlates in macroscopically detectable systems. Our model is strongly rooted in an overwhelming experimental evidence derived from multidisciplinary contexts. Our basic understanding identifies the Quantum Potential as a superluminal SubQuantum Information-carrying aether able to interact with matter and physical forces at well defined space-time positions, injecting their Information content into our world of observables by modulating the event potential. This interaction is possible as soon as matter is defined by an n-degree entanglement state of SQ complexity. Absolute void refers to lack of matter which equals to a space-time sequence contending Information in its nascent, non-aggregative form (the Sub quantum plenum) as observed from our Space-Time perspective. It contains implicated layers of increasingly subtle pre-quantum domains, where each manifestation range may be organized into complete worlds, such as our own, each of them ranging until its own "absolute void", the transition state to the next implication level of reality. Pre-quantum tenets rely upon experimentally testable assessments. Our proposal has a strong outreach into unprecedented explanatory options for anomalous output data distribution in non-conventional exploration fields, whose statistically significant results become logically integrated into epistemologically sustainable blueprints. Our views are perfectly consistent both with conventional empirical treatment of space-time defying representational variables, and their causal primacy upon Quantum implementation systems of their content, in the integral range of their polyvalent manifestation. Detailed descriptions of mind/matter entanglement patterns are supplied, as running in the holistic superimplicative sentient reality domains, under the overarching regulation of Cosmic Harmony, underpinning a continuous creation cosmogenetic process. As our analysis addresses a pre-temporal range, the thus defined endless time vector allows ab-initio existing inherent resonance links in any SQ subtlety domain to turn into fluxes and organization effects leading to sequential entelechial self-contended worlds. These primeval harmonic SQ resonances are the very pattern of our overarching cosmic harmony just mentioned, the source of all conceivable manifestation and interconnectedness.  C

34  The Big Condensation-Not the Big Bang  R.W. Boyer <rw.boyer@yahoo.com> (Fairfield, IA)
   R. W. Boyer Girne American University Girne, Northern Cyprus According to the consensus cosmological theory of the inflationary ‘Big Bang,’ the universe originated, presumably instantaneously from nothing, as an inherently dynamic, randomly fluctuating, quantum particle-force field that eventually congealed into stars, planets, and organisms such as humans complex enough to generate consciousness. This fragmented, reductive materialistic view is associated with a bottom-up matter-mind-consciousness ontology, in which the whole is created from combining the parts. In this view, consciousness is an emergent property of random bits of energy/matter that somehow bind into unitary biological organisms mysteriously developing control over their parts. On the other hand, the holistic perspective in Vedic science is a top-down consciousness-mind-matter ontology, in which the parts manifest from the whole. In that perspective, the origin of the universe is better characterized as the ‘Big Condensation’ rather than ‘Big Bang.’ Phenomenal existence remains within the unified field and manifests, limits itself, or condenses into subjective mind and objective matter. The holistic perspective of ultimate unity and its sequential unfoldment is contained in the structure of Rik Veda.1 Vedanta is from the experiential perspective of unity, and the sequential unfoldment of phenomenal levels of nature within unity is articulated, for example, in Sankhya and Ayurveda. The holistic perspective is more consistent with developing understanding in unified field theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking, quantum decoherence, the ‘arrow of time,’ and the 2nd law of thermodynamics, which imply the universe originated from a lowest entropy, super-symmetric, even perfectly orderly, super-unified state. The holistic perspective in Vedic science provides means for resolving fundamental paradoxes in the reductive, materialistic, bottom-up ontology? including the ‘hard problem’ of consciousness, order emerging from fundamental random disorder, life emerging from non-life, free will, and everything emerging from nothing.2   C

35  Examining the Effect of Physiolgical Temperature on the Dynamics of Microtubules  Travis Craddock, Jack A. Tuszynski <tcraddoc@phys.ualberta.ca> (Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada)
   The leading objection against theories implicating quantum processes taking place within neuronal microtubules states that the interactions of a microtubule system with an environment at physiological temperature would cause any quantum states within the system to decohere, thus destroying quantum effects. Counter arguments state that physiologically relevant temperatures may enhance quantum processes, and that isolation of microtubules by biological mechanisms, such as actin gel states or layers of ordered water, could protect fragile quantum states, but to date no conclusive studies have been performed. As such working quantum based models of microtubules are required. Two quantum-based models are suggested and used to investigate the effect of temperature on microtubule dynamics. First, to investigate the possibility of quantum processes in relation to information processing in microtubules a computer microtubule model inspired by the cellular automata models of Smith, Hameroff and Watt, and Hameroff, Rasmussen and Mansson is used. The model uses a typical microtubule configuration of 13 protofilaments with its constituent tubulin proteins packed into a seven-member neighbourhood in a tilted hexagon configuration known as an A-Lattice. The interior of the tubulin protein is taken to contain a region of two areas of positive charge separated by a barrier of negative charge and is based on electrostatic maps of the protein interior. The interior arrangement constitutes a double well potential structure within which a mobile electron is used to determine the states of an individual tubulin dimer. Dynamics of the system are determined by the minimization of the overall energy associated with electrostatic interactions between neighbouring electrons as well as thermal effects. Classically the model allows transitions for electrons with sufficient energy to overcome the potential barrier in which the new configuration lowers the system’s energy, or if the configuration raises the system’s energy, with a finite probability. Quantum mechanically the model allows the electron to tunnel through the potential barrier allowing transitions for which the system’s energy is lowered even if the electron does not possess the necessary energy to overcome the potential barrier, or for configurations that raise the system’s energy with the same finite probability as in the classical scenario. The emergence of self-organizing patterns that are static, oscillating, or propagating in time are taken as the determining factors of the system’s capability to process information. Second, to further the investigation of quantum processes taking place in microtubules, an exciton model of the microtubule is used. Tubulin monomers are taken as quantum well structures containing an electron that exists in its ground state, or 1st excited state. Following previous work that models the mechanisms of excition energy transfer in Scheibe aggregates the issues of determining the strength of excition and phonon interactions, and the effect on the formation and dynamics of coherent excition domains within microtubules are discussed. Also estimates of energy and time scales for excitons, phonons, their interactions and thermal effects are presented.   C

36  Consciousness As Access To Active Information: Progression, Rather Than Collapse, Of The Quantum Subject  Jonathan Edwards <jo.edwards@ucl.ac.uk> (Medicine, University College London, London, England)
   The link between consciousness and quantum theory often draws on the views of von Neumann on wave function collapse. From a biological standpoint several arguments favour a different approach. Any quantum mechanical process involved needs to link in to classical biophysics and the most plausible route is through the correspondence principle (as Feynman’s QED life history of a photon scales up to classical diffraction by Young’s slits). In this scaling up, wave function collapse loses significance, the dynamics being dictated by the laws of linear progression (von Neumann type 2, rather than type 1). Moreover, wave function collapse is not required by all interpretations of QM, a widespread view being that it is neither useful nor meaningful to divide the quantum system into arbitrarily defined ‘sub-processes’. There are also severe difficulties in defining the boundaries of the ‘quantum system’ with wave function collapse or decoherence approaches. Linear progression through a physical environment (Young’s slits, brain) involves an interaction with the environment which entails access by the quantum system (e.g. photon) to what Bohm and Hiley usefully call ‘active information’ about its environment. Access to information is both an indivisible and a bounded phenomenon. Since consciousness appears to be a state of access to a rich, indivisible, yet bounded, pattern of information this makes access to active information at the quantum level an attractive explanation. In macroscopic structures the life histories of quantum systems represented by particles with rest mass, such as electrons, with wavelengths close to the size of atoms, are both too 'fine-grained' and too biologically irrelevant to be plausible as ‘quantum-dynamic subjects’ accessing the active information that would be our experience of the world. However, massless bosons such as photons and acoustic phonons, with much longer wavelengths, might be candidates. Fields or modes of large numbers of such bosons can mediate classical mechanical effects and lose nothing of their indivisibility of acquisition of information in doing so. No form of phase coherence is required for this aspect of QM to apply on a large scale. The implied identity of the ‘quantum-dynamic subject’ might upset philosophers, but that can happen with biology. Phononic modes in cell membranes may be attractive candidates for quantum-dynamic subjects because their functional wavelengths could match the micron scale at which electrical information is held in neuronal dendrites and the known piezoelectric properties of the membrane would allow coupling of electrical information (and not irrelevant ‘cell housekeeping’ processes) to the phononic mode. Recent thermodynamic reassessment of the action potential suggests that electromechanical coupling may be integral to membrane excitability. Electromechanically coupled modes are documented in neurons in the inner ear. Whether such modes can, or should, involve groups of cells is uncertain. Relevant phononic modes in cortical neurons would be at or beyond the limit of current direct detection methods but might be probed indirectly with e.g. anaesthetics or calcium levels. Standing wave modes based on local longitudinal ‘dendritic telescoping’, possibly linked to cytoskeletal microtubules, might be the most plausible.   C

37  Existence and consciousness  Peter Ells <peterells@hotmail.co.uk> (Oxford, UK)
   Stephen Hawking (1988) wrote, “What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe. The usual approach of science of constructing a mathematical model cannot answer the questions of why there should be a universe for the model to describe. Why does the universe go to the bother of existing?” This paper cannot answer these “What” or “Why” questions. Instead it asks, “What do we mean when we say that our universe actually exists, and how does this concept of actual existence take us beyond mere mathematical existence?” The paper considers various types of existence: experiential existence of experiential beings possessing subjective, qualitative, perceptual states (that do not necessarily amount to thinking states); Physical existence of external objects that can be inferred by collating the percepts of experiential beings; Material existence of entities obeying physical laws without reference to experiential beings; Finally mathematical existence, which is merely formal description that is logically consistent. There might not be any life elsewhere in our universe, and it is quite conceivable that, had the history of our planet been slightly different, life might never have emerged here. In these circumstances, our universe would have completed its history lifeless, and thus (according to the dominant viewpoint) only ever have contained entities with material existence. In such circumstances the problem arises that material existence, (as will be shown), collapses into mere mathematical existence. We can be very confident that we and our universe have more than mere mathematical existence, and so something must be wrong. The solution I argue for here is that all material existence must in fact be experiential existence, and so all matter is subjective and experiential in its essence. From a study of what it means for a universe actually to exist, I thus arrive at panpsychism. A dodecahedral universe is used as an example to show how conceptually simple experiential beings might be. Finally, I sketch in very general terms how the well-known, problematic characteristics of quantum theory are in harmony with panpsychism. Hawking, S. (1988), A brief history of time (London: Bantam Press).   C

38  Does microbial information processing by interconnected adaptive events reflect a pre-mental cognitive capacity?  Gernot Falkner, Kristjan Plaetzer; Renate Falkner <Gernot.Falkner@sbg.ac.at> (Organismic Biology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria)
    We dicuss possible cognitive capacities of bacteria, using a model of microbial information processing that is based on a generalized conception of experience, from which all traits characteristic for higher animals (such as consciousness and thought) have been removed. This conception allows relating the experience of an organism to the phenomenon of physiological adaptation, defined as a process in which energy converting subsystems of a cell are conformed – in an interconnected sequence of adaptive events – to an environmental alteration, aimed at attainment of a state of least energy dissipation. In adaptive events the subsystems pass, via an adaptive operation mode from one adapted state to the next. An adaptive operation mode occurs, when a subsystem is disturbed by an environmental alteration. In this mode the environmental change is interpreted in respect to a reconstruction that appears to be useful in the light of previous experiences. Connectivity exists between adaptive events in that the adapted state resulting from an adaptive operation mode stimulates adaptive operation modes in other subsystems. When in these systems adapted states have been attained, the originally attained adapted states are no longer conformed and have to re-adapt, and so on. In this way adaptive events become elements of a communicating network, in which, along a historic succession of alternating adapted states and adaptive operation modes, information pertaining to the self-preservation of the organism is transferred from one adaptive event to the next: the latter “interprets” environmental changes by means of distinct adaptive operation modes, aimed at preservation of the organism. The result of this interpretation is again leading to a coherent state that is passed on to subsequent adaptive events. A generalization of this idea to the adaptive interplay of other energy converting subsystems of the cell leads to the dynamic view of cellular information processing in which an organism constantly observes its environment and re-creates itself in every new experience. This model of cellular information processing is exemplified in the adaptive response of cyanobacteria to external phosphate fluctuations. It is shown that adaptive processes have a temporal vector character in that they connect former with future events. One the one hand they are influenced by antecedent adaptations, so that in this respect a cellular memory is revealed in adaptive processes. On the other hand they bear an anticipatory aspect, since adaptation to a new environmental situation occurs in a way that meets the future requirements of the cell. A computer model of the intracellular communication about experienced environmental influences allowed simulating the experimentally observed adaptive dynamics, when during the simulation the program altered the parameters of the model in response to the outcome of its own simulation. Falkner R., Priewasser M., & Falkner G. (2006): Information processing by Cyanobacteria during adaptation to environmental phosphate fluctuations. Plant Signaling and Behaviour, 1, 212-220. Plaetzer K., Thomas S. R., Falkner R., & Falkner G. (2005): The microbial experience of environmental phosphate fluctuations. An essay on the possibility of putting intentions into cell biochemistry. J. Theor. Biol. 235, 540-554.   C

39  Mind backward paths: from ascons to dendrites passing through quantum memories   Alberto Faro, Giordano Daniela <albfaro@gmail.com> (Ingegneria Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Univesita' di Catania, Catania, Italy)
   Neural networks in the brain convey forward signals from dendrites to axons, whereas backward paths have not been identified yet. This makes it difficult to explain how the mind, an open system mutually dependent on the environment, reaches equilibrium states with the surrounding context. In a previous work the authors have proposed five hypotheses envisaging a model (i.e., the Frame Model of the Quantum Brain) in which the adaptation between self and environment is regulated by a high order cybernetics loop without entailing any “entity” in mind. This paper refines the five hypotheses proposing that quantum memories have a role in implementing the backward paths from axons to dendrites as follows: • Human activity is sustained by two quantum fields, i.e., the cortical and ordering fields produced by the vibrations of the myriad of dipoles existing at neuronal and cytoplasm level, allowing the subjects to enact each action (coded by a Humezawa’s corticon) of a scene (coded by a Faro&Giordano’s orderon) depending on the performed actions and the planned ones. Awareness of the scene is only achieved a-posteriori, when the scene has been concluded without contradicting the initial hypothesis. This extends the notion of “backward time referral”. • The orderons are classified according to their regularities by a Clustering Quantum Field (CQF) produced by the vibrations of dipoles at dendrites level. This generates an ontological space whose axes are coded by CQF particles (i.e., Faro&Giordano’s clusterons). • The problem at hand and some external representation activate selectively the mRNAs on the dendrites which on their turn activate the axons of the related neuronal groups. The excitation of the postsynaptic potentials generates a global EEG profile together with the emission of photons specific for the given input. These photons activate a set of orderons (coded by vacuum states). This explains why the received inputs address the attention towards areas of the ontological space containing scenes having some analogy with the situation hypothesized by the subject. The collapse of the activated vacuum states towards the state representing the prevailing scene produces the emission of photons that inhibit or reinforce the synthesis of the proteins on the dendrites. This loop evolves until the stimuli received and the codification of the information perceived by the self in correspondence to these stimuli are one the mirror of the other in DQBM (Dissipative Quantum Brain Model) sense. • If the subjects recognize not being experienced to deal with the current situation, a new scene and related orderon is created consciously by cross-over and mutation of relevant existing scenes. The inputs of the new scene will reactivate in future similar situations the zones of the ontological space containing the scenes originating the new one. • The external representations mediate the communication of the scenes among people in order to create conventions and rituals that are at the basis of a social life. Empirical evidences at the basis of the model and hypotheses to be tested will be pointed out, thus identifying the lines of the future work.   C

40  Differentials of Deep Consciousness: Deleuze, Bohm and Virtual Ontology  Shannon Foskett <foskett@uchicago.edu> ( , University of Chicago, London, Canada)
   This paper will explore the relevance for the study of consciousness of the surprising relationship between David Bohm’s Implicate Order and the ontological thought of late French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. The uncanny connection between Bohm’s thought and the oft-misrepresented work of various “postmodern” philosophers such as Derrida or Lacan has been addressed most notably by mathematician and cultural theorist Arkady Plotnitsky. Plotnitsky’s work, however, stops short of looking at Deleuze and does not consider the relationship to consciousness. I would like to suggest the mutual relevance of Deleuze and Bohm for scholars of their work, but also, and more importantly, the new flexibility that their combined vision might offer for theorizing consciousness in wider disciplinary contexts and in conjunction with existing notions of consciousness in the humanities. This ability to address more prevalent conceptions of consciousness in the academic community will be in increasing demand as empirical research on consciousness matures. Fortunately, there already exists an intuitive understanding on the part of some humanities scholars of an implicit relationship between quantum theory and ideas within what can be loosely considered as “postmodern” thought. Bohm’s “holomovement” and “implicate order” express much the same ideas as the notion of intensive depth in Deleuze. Both sets of terminology describe being as a process of (en)folding and unfolding. Deleuze even uses the same descriptor, referring to intensive depth as “an implicated order of constitutive differences.” This depth corresponds to the infinite nature of the wave form of each potential particle. In a quantum field theory context, the situation is described in terms of an infinite overlapping of fields, where the field replaces the sub-atomic particle as the “ultimate, fundamental concept in physics, because quantum physics tells us that particles (material objects) are themselves manifestations of fields.” This set of all matter waves is nothing but Deleuze’s pure spatium, from which “emerge at once the extensio and the extensum, the qualitas and the quale.” Being, in its intensive depths, is drawn out, or explicated, through a motion of different/ciation that produces it as extensity. This causes intensity to appear “outside itself and hidden by quality.” For Bohm, the explicate order is also a merely limited case of the implicate order. I will argue that Deleuze’s unique concept of the Idea as a particular point of intensity within the Implicate may be a theoretical placeholder for phenomena in quantum-based models of consciousness. Finally I will discuss how Deleuze’s model contributes to Bohm’s with an understanding of what role of chance processes might play within various levels of consciousness.   C

41  Intensity of awareness and duration of nowness   Georg Franck, Harald Atmannspacher <franck@iemar.tuwien.ac.at> (Digital Methods in Architecture and Planning, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria)
   It has been proposed to translate the mind-matter distinction into terms of mental and physical time. In the spirit of this idea, we hypothesize a relation between the intensity of awareness in mental presence and a crucial time scale (some ten milliseconds) relevant for information updates in mental systems. This time scale can be quantitatively related to another time scale (some seconds) often referred to as a measure for the duration of nowness. This duration is experimentally accessible and offers, thus, a suitable way to characterize the intensity of mental awareness. Interesting consequences with respect to the idea of a generalized notion of mental awareness, of which human consciousness is a special case, will be outlined.   C

42  Overcoming Discontinuity and Dualism in Modern Cosmology  Mary Fries <mfries@ciis.edu> (Philosophy, Cosmology, and Consciousness, California Institute of Integral Studies, Oakland, California)
   Begun as an explanation for the stepwise emittance and absorption of energy observed in physical systems, quantum mechanics, by its very name, asserts the discontinuity of matter, a modern atomism that influences the development of current attempts to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity. The ensuing schemata of superstring theory and loop quantum gravity reinforce our tendency to objectify the foundations of an evolving reality, and while, via these ideas, we have transcended the billiard-ball notion of point-like particles, we have in no way evaded reductive abstraction. The spatiotemporal-limitations of human form justify this natural tendency toward generalization, yet this predisposition still recurrently hinders scientific progress. While formulaic abstractions do no harm in so far as we recognize them as limitations of our assumptions, in order to truly integrate quantum mechanics and relativity, we will need to overcome our expectation of subatomic happenings to mirror the behavior of macroscopic bodies. According to modern theory, spin nets or strings (depending on the model used), the supposed 'fundamental particles' of reality, form the very fabric of the universe. They do not embed themselves within space-time; they define space-time. Hence, a supposition of their discreteness implies discreteness of both time and space. Planck's contribution of a 'smallest size' and a 'smallest time', Planck length and Planck time respectively, fortifies the discretization of reality, as does Heisenberg's uncertainty principle by placing a lower limit on our capability to conduct measurement. But do a handful of constants and a threshold to our investigations justify delimiting our work by potentially premature quantification of the natural universe? History abounds with cases of simplifications of mind being finally overturned by less intuitive explanations. The redefinition of Bohr's atomic model, the discovery of cosmic inflation, and perhaps the most popularized realization of the earth as a round satellite of the sun all required significant mental reorientation to the cosmos. Quantum mechanics continues to baffle those seeking to assimilate its implications into minds predisposed to entirely different logic and causal relationships. As every abstraction is by definition a limitation, it may well be the case that, in much the same way, our attachment to quanta holds us back from an integration of the four forces. But would such a re-envisagement of the 'fundamental particles' necessarily imply a continuous universe instead? Perhaps, but while certain problems are more easily formulated from within the framework of such a dualism, it may well be the case that the much-anticipated union will occur to those who refuse to be bound, to those who come to view reality as organism, perhaps with a mixture of continuity and breaks such as black holes and the seeming origin of the universe, as a universe that favors its own direction over constructions of the human mind. Within a more accommodating model, the flexibility of the wave and the stability of the particle may be formulated in a higher-order abstraction with broader limitations and wider reconciliations wherein mind can be finally integrated as a fundamental component of reality.   C

43  Modeling Consciousness in Complex Spacetime Using Methodology of Quantum and Classical Physics.   Anatoly Goldstein <a_goldshteyn@yahoo.com> (Voice Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA)
   It is argued that even if quantum mechanical formalism does not directly apply to consciousness mechanisms, the methodology used for solution of Schrödinger equation and its interpretation may be very useful for modeling of consciousness. According to I. Thompson (2002) Hamiltonian and wave function of Schrödinger equation resulting in probabilities of observation outcomes correspond to conscious activities such as intentions and thoughts resulting in actions. R. Penrose & W. Rindler (1984) indicated that "space-time geometry, as well as quantum theory, may be governed by an underlying complex rather than real structure". A geometric model of consciousness (E. Rauscher & R. Targ, 2001) shows importance of imaginary space and time coordinates in interpretation of non-local consciousness phenomena such as remote viewing and precognition. The current author is suggesting to model information dynamics of consciousness with a complex function in complex spacetime. This automatically accounts for the ability of consciousness/awareness to access imaginary coordinates of complex spacetime. Max Born formula shows how one can extract real-valued observable data from the complex-valued function that might be applicable to modeling of consciousness. Consciousness is commonly considered to be directly related to vibration processes such as brainwaves, electrical activity in neural membranes. It is suggested to model these processes with a linear combination of complex exponents (CE), similar to complex form of Fourier expansion, see K. Pribram (2003). A single CE represents a solution of classical harmonic oscillator problem in complex spacetime. If we assume that human intention focus can be in zero approximation modeled by a virtual particle that we call intenton and describe the behavior of intenton in human brain/body with a known quantum mechanical model of a particle in 3D box, we are also arriving at a solution containing CE. Group theoretic aspects of modeling consciousness-related vibrations with CE are considered. If we assume that human consciousness is supported in part by tachyons rotating around human body, then precognition may be possible due to the ability of the superluminal tachyon to cross its own past light cone (move backwards in time). This hypothesis is consistent with results of M. Davidson's (2001) numerical simulation of tachyon circular (in space) & helical (in spacetime) movement based on Feynman-Wheeler electrodynamics seemingly confirmed in its J. Cramer's (1986) version by S. Afshar (2004) experiment. Role of entropy, information, and symmetry in modeling of moral aspects of consciousness is considered. The author is suggesting a mechanism of reverse psychology (reactance) based on Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction applied to interaction of two or more minds. Following A.& A. Fingelkurts (2001), the minds in the suggested mechanism are represented by human brain biopotential fields. Based on K. Pribram's (1987) holonomic brain theory the current author suggests that neural oscillations interference may be responsible not only for the memory mechanisms of image storage/retrieval, but also potentially for the very essence of active operational function of consciousness. Specifically if we attempt to establish a correspondence between waves (characterized by frequency, amplitude and phase) and elementary ideas (e.g., an idea of a number) then we can conclude that interference of coherent waves in brain may be responsible for, or, at least, closely related to the ability of consciousness to add numbers, while interference of pi-phase-shifted brainwaves might support the conscious operation of subtraction. It remains to be seen whether a natural author's hypothesis that brain math, logic and information processing/thinking in general are based on interference of neural oscillations and on K. Pribram's storage in/retrieval from memory of resulting interference patterns.  C

44  Quantum Mechanics, Cosmology, Biology and the seat of Consciousness   Maurice Goodman <maurice.goodman@dit.ie> (School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 8, Ireland)
   All fundamental particles and structures obey the uncertainty principle. If we ignore particles and structures traveling at close to the speed of light (c) (i.e. >0.9c) the maximum uncertainty in momentum is of order mc where m is the mass of the structure/particle. This implies there is a minimum region of space such particles and structures can be confined to without violation of the uncertainty principle. Furthermore the mass of key structures found in nature generally varies in proportion to R^2, where R is size, and not R^3 as might be expected. By assuming all fundamental particles also obey this relation a sequence of “minimum” masses (M) can be calculated, one from another using M(n+1) = h/cRn (n = 0, +/-1, +/-2…), where h is Planck’s constant. These coincide with the fundamental particle/structure masses found in nature over 80 orders of magnitude of mass. This allowed a prediction for the neutrino mass, 20 years ago, that recent experimental results agree with. The above mass sequence insists on a direct link between Biology and the cell on the one hand and the neutrino and the weak force on the other. No one can seriously buy into the notion that the millions of millions of complex molecules within a cell exchange information, and organize themselves by nearest neighbour interactions only. The “hand in glove” sine qua non of all molecular transfers of information in biology is simply not sufficient to explain overall co-ordination within and between cells. There must also be, almost instantaneous, long-range communication to prevent chaos. Quantum coherence is an attractive candidate here. The range (r) at which quantum coherence ceases is given by r = h/(3mkT)^0.5, where m is the mass of the particles involved, T is the absolute temperature and k is Boltzmann’s constant. The lightest particle associated with chemical processes is the electron and this limits r to less than 10^-8 m. for all electromagnetic processes at room temperature. This is too short for cellular and intercellular communication and information transfer. The equivalent range (r) for neutrinos at room temperature is less than 10^-4 m, which is the scale on which neurological processes occur. Therefore, if quantum effects are at the root of consciousness, in the mind, then they are more likely to relate to the neutrino and weak force rather than the electron and the electromagnetic force. Neutrino’s would also provide the two necessary characteristics of the substrate for quantum computation i.e. insulation from the cell sap (electromagnetic processes) to allow for quantum entanglement and, the possibility of intercellular continuity to allow for multicellular quantum coherent states. While the input/output signals to/from the mind are clearly electromagnetic processes the “processing” of these signals could conceivably be based on the half spin “quantum bit” neutrino. The linchpin between the electromagnetic inputs/outputs and the processing in the mind would be spin. In short, the mind may exhibit consciousness as a result of the weak force and neutrino and not the electromagnetic force and the electron.   C

45  Time Reversal Effects in Visual Word Recognition  Anastasia Gorbunova, Gorbunova, Anastasia A.; Levin, Samuel. <gorbunov@email.arizona.edu> (Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ)
   The present study investigated time-reversal effects in visual word recognition using a traditional technique called lexical decision with masked priming. In this paradigm the subject is presented with strings of letters of various durations on a computer screen. The first string is a forward mask (usually a sequence of non-linguistic symbols such as hash-marks), which is followed by the target letter sequence. The subject's task is to decide whether the target letter sequence is a word or not. A prime, usually related (e.g. one letter different from the target) or unrelated (e.g. all letters different from the target), is presented briefly after the forward mask and before the target. The subject is usually unaware of the prime. In this type of experiments, it has been shown that presentation of a related prime facilitates the processing of the target thereby producing faster reaction times when compared to trials where the target is preceded by an unrelated prime. The current study attempted to move beyond conventional applications of this paradigm by introducing a post-prime that followed the target in addition to the common pre-prime that precedes the target. The latter addition was aimed at exploring some of the current ideas of time and retro-causation by comparing the amount of priming obtained in the following conditions: (i) a 50 ms either identical or unrelated pre-prime with a dummy post-prime (presented as a row of x's), (ii) a 30 ms identical pre-prime with either a 30 ms identical or a 30 ms unrelated post-prime, (iii) a 30 ms unrelated pre-prime with either a 30 ms identical or a 30 ms unrelated post-prime, and (iv) a 50 ms either identical or unrelated post-prime with a dummy pre-prime. Additionally, half of the words in this experiment were emotional (e.g. murder) and the other half were neutral (e.g. garden). This was done to test whether emotional words would produce more priming either in the pre-prime, the post-prime, or both conditions, than neutral ones. The results of this study are intended to shed light on the influences of emotional states on visual word recognition, as well as provide evidence for small-scale temporal reversal effects in conscious and unconscious processes.  C

46  Integral Aspects Of The Action Principle In Biology And Psychology: The Ultimate Physical Roots Of Consciousness Beyond The Quantum Level  Attila Grandpierre <grandp@iif.hu> (Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Zebegeny, Hungary)
   During the last centuries it became more and more clear that the highest achievement of modern physics is its most fundamental law, the action principle. The action principle itself is not understood, its physical content is obscure, and its integral character is ignored. Here we consider the nature of action and found it having a biological nature. We point out that the action principle usually takes a minimum value in physical systems, while in biological organism it usually takes its maximal value. Therefore, we could recognize in the already established action principle’s most general form the first principle of biology. We show that biological organisms employ first its maximum version and determine the biological endpoint using the maximal form, and when the endpoint is determined on a biological basis, the realization of the physical trajectory occurs on the basis of the minimum version. We demonstrate that it is the till now ignored integral character of the action principle which serves as the ontological basis of the unity of living organisms, offering a wide variety of physical processes not considered yet because of their biological and teleological nature. We found a new interpretation of the classic two-slit experiment of quantum mechanics, offering a new, causal interpretation of quantum physics that connects it on a fundamental way with biological processes. We show that the biological form of the action principle acts in the realm beyond quantum physics and represents a new frontier of science. It offers integral principles and quantitative methods to determine biological equations of motion of living organisms, therefore making it possible to extend the range of modern science and develop a real theoretical biology. We present fundamental equations of biology, numerical methods and examples, propose new experiments, and presents experimental predictions. We derive from the biological principle such fundamental life phenomena as self-initiated spontaneous macroscopic activity, regeneration, regulation, homeostasis, and metabolism. We present detailed evidences on the concrete physical aspects of elementary consciousness of quanta, like instantaneous quantum orientation of quanta in their environment, behaving “as if” they “know” about the whole situation, having collective memory, and show ability of learning. Clarifying the concrete physical aspects of consciousness, science becomes able to approach consciousness and self-consciousness on a mathematical, physical and biological basis. In this way, it seems we can enter to a new era of quantitative biology and psychology above the molecular level, based on biology meeting physics below the quantum level.  C

47  Neuro-quantum associative memory for letter-strings and faces   Tarik Hadzibeganovic, Chu Kiong Loo (Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia) <ta.hadzibeganovic@uni-graz.at> (Language Development & Cognitive Science, University of Graz, Graz, Austria)
   We present an integrative, two-stage complex-valued neuro-quantum hybrid model of face-specific and letter-string-specific neural activations, consistent with the recent report of Tarkiainen, Cornelissen, and Salmelin (2002). In the first stage, at about 100 ms following the stimulus onset, the low-level visual feature analysis in the occipital cortex (V1) is represented by the natural production of Gabor-like receptive fields. This processing stage was, as showed by Tarkiainen et al. (2002), common to both the analysis of letter-strings (words) and faces. In the second stage, about 150 ms after the stimulus presentation, we show that the object-level analysis in the inferior occipito-temporal cortex is representable by the Hebbian-like multiple self-interference of the resulting, quantum-implemented Gabor wavelets (Perus, Bischof, & Loo, 2005). With some differences in hemispheric distribution, both letter-strings and faces activate largely overlapping areas in the inferior occipito-temporal cortex, with practically identical onset and peak latencies (Tarkiainen, 2003). We reflect on these equalities in activation and the corresponding processing similarities of words and faces with our quantum associative network model by obtaining similar face and letter-string reconstruction (recognition) quality functions. Our modeling results argue in favor of a quantum-like nature of conscious visual information processing in the human brain.   C

48  A steady state EEG phase synchrony model of consciousness: insights from transcendental meditation practice   Russell Hebert, Rachel Goodman; Fred Travis; Alarik Arenander; Gabriel Tan <tmeeg@aol.com> (Neuroscience, Maharishi University of Management, Houston, Tx)
    This presentation adopts these perspectives: that a fully developed consciousness theory is compatible with quantum field theory, that the theory of consciousness must be holistic (non-reductionistic); it must include a concept of the “self”; it must address the origin of consciousness and it must resolve the “binding” problem. In the presented research (Hebert et al., 2005) two approaches have been taken: subjective and objective. The subjective, theoretical approach is derived from Maharishi Vedic Science, an ancient model of consciousness with modern applications. The objective approach involves research utilizing EEG alpha phase synchrony analysis. Maharishi Vedic Science describes consciousness as inner and outer. The inner (transcendental) value explains consciousness as an unbounded field underlying and informing human experience. When the individual accesses this state, it is called self-referral consciousness, or below as “unified wholeness”. When the individual experiences the perception of thoughts and objects, this type of conscious awareness is termed object-referral consciousness (or below as “unified diversity”). Both the “ground state” of the universe in quantum physics and the properties of the self-referral state of consciousness are described as: unmanifest, de-excited, holistic, unified and field-like (see Hagelin, this volume). Hagelin states that the ground state of the universe is also comprised of resonant vibrational modes which can also be referred to as standing waves. Both from the research conducted, and the theoretical background we conclude that alpha standing waves may connect individual consciousness to the quantum level of Nature’s functioning. In line with this idea, Chris King (Tuszynski, ed., 2006) suggests a plausible link “between EEG phase coherence in global brain states and anticipatory boundary conditions in quantum systems…” (p.407). New research has shown that the phase behavior of alpha controls global cortical excitability ((Klimesch et al., 2007). Our study agrees with this hypothesis. We suggest further however that global and instantaneous shifts of excitability can only occur in stationary environments. Alpha standing waves found in our study are the epitome of the globally de-excited cortex, a “ground” state of consciousness corresponding to John’s (2001) field theory postulations. This, in relation to quantum physics, is a possible description of the origin of consciousness. Recent developments agree with our proposal that alpha phase synchrony may also provide the solution of the binding problem. Palva and Palva (2007) suggest that alpha-gamma cross-frequency phase synchrony (“unified diversity”) orchestrates the creation of each “snapshot” of discrete perception. The emerging picture is that changing modes of alpha regulate perceptual frames within the boundaries of time and space (the binding problem) and that alpha, as well, frames the timeless infinity of self-referral consciousness described as “unified wholeness”. Palva and Palva (2007) “New Vistas for alpha band oscillations” Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience 34(4), 150-8. Hebert et al., Enhanced EEG alpha phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation. Signal Processing Journal(2005)85, 2213-2232 Klimesch et al (2007) “EEG oscillations: the inhibition-timing hypothesis” Brain Research Reviews 53(1) 63-88 E.R.John, 2001 “A field theory of consciousness” Cons. and Cogn 10, 184-213 King, In “The Emerging Physics of Consciousness” (Tuszynski, ed., 2006 Springer, Berlin)   C

49  The Role of Consciousness as Universal (Classical) and Contextual (Quantum) Meaning-Maker   Patrick Heelan <heelanp@georgetown.edu> (Philosophy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC)
   Thesis: Human consciousness is the Governor of Mental Life {1} through its function of constituting the world of human experience by meaning-making or – to use Husserl’s term - intentional constitution. The forms of meaning-making are syntheses of experience through the formal modeling of individual perceptual objects under a categorial description. These formal models are extensional (space-like) symmetries based on a group-theoretic similarity of common qualitative (meaningful intensional) features that fulfill the same kind of cognitive model as characterizes quantum physics, namely, Hilbert Space. Individual perceptual objects are recognized interpretatively on the basis of common meaningful qualitative features organized in a group-theoretic synthesis of a manifold of profiles, that are then accepted by the perceiver as having a common categorial description named in language. Having a common categorial description is for something to be recognized as belonging to a symmetry group of particular exemplars. Both individual and categorial descriptions involve group-theoretic ways of organizing the interpretation of the flowing inputs from the sensory field in a constructed synthesis that functions in sustaining and developing the quality of human life. As such, both individual and categorial syntheses serve human life, and do so through the organization of human decision-making and activity, some under universal (classical) group-theoretic symmetries and others under contextual (quantum-like) group-theoretic symmetries. As in the quantum theory; part of this process is unconscious and part is dialogical, social, deliberate, and linguistic (in the sense known as systemic functional linguistics, Tomasello, Halliday, Thibault, et al.). Karl Pribram’s notion of a Windowed Fourier transformation within the dendritic fibers could well be the quantum neurological aspect of this process (2). Notes: (1)This term is used by Donald, Merlin, A Mind So Rare, Chap. 3 (New York: Norton, 2001); Pribram calls it ‘central processing complement.’ In Pribram, K. Brain and Perception (Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum,1991), p. 96. (2)Pribram, K. (1991) Brain and Perception; Holonomy and Structure in Figural Procession (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum), pp. 26-27.   C

50  Experimental Approach to Quantum Brain: Evidence of Nonlocal Neural, Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects  Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu <hupinghu@quantumbrain.org> (Biophysics Consulting Group, Stony Brook, New York)
   Many if not most scientists do not believe that quantum effects play any role in consciousness. Thus, to gain credibility and make real progress, any serious attempt at a quantum brain should also stress experimental work besides theoretical considerations. Therefore, we has recently carried out experiments from the perspective of our spin-mediated consciousness theory to test the possibility of quantum-entangling the quantum entities inside the brain with those of an external chemical substance. We found that applying magnetic pulses to the brain when an anesthetic was placed in between caused the brain to feel the effect of said anesthetic as if the test subject had actually inhaled the same. Through additional experiments, we verified that the said brain effect was indeed the consequence of quantum entanglement. These results defy common belief that quantum entanglement alone cannot be used to transmit information and support the possibility of a quantum brain. More recently, we have carried out experiments on simple physical systems and we have found that: (1) the pH value of water in a detecting reservoir quantum-entangled with water in a remote reservoir changes in the same direction as that in the remote water when the latter is manipulated under the condition that the water in the detecting reservoir is able to exchange energy with its local environment; (2) the temperature of water in a detecting reservoir quantum-entangled with water in a remote reservoir can change against the temperature of its local environment when the latter is manipulated under the condition that the water in the detecting reservoir is able to exchange energy with its local environment; and (3) the gravity of water in a detecting reservoir quantum-entangled with water in a remote reservoir can change against the gravity of its local environment when the latter was remotely manipulated such that, it is hereby predicted, the gravitational energy/potential is globally conserved. These non-local effects are all reproducible, surprisingly robust and support a quantum brain theory such as our spin mediated consciousness theory. Perhaps the most shocking is our experimental demonstration of Newton's instantaneous gravity and Mach's instantaneous connection conjecture and the relationship between gravity and quantum entanglement. Our findings also imply that the properties of all matters can be affected non-locally through quantum entanglement mediated processes. Second, the second law of thermodynamics may not hold when two quantum-entangled systems together with their respective local environments are considered as two isolated systems and one of them is manipulated. Third, gravity has a non-local aspect associated with quantum entanglement thus can be non-locally manipulated through quantum entanglement mediated processes. Fourth, in quantum-entangled systems such as biological systems, quantum information may drive such systems to a more ordered state against the disorderly effect of environmental heat. We urge all interested scientists and the like to do their own experiments to verify and extend our findings.  C

51  Consciousness, Coherence and Quantum Entanglement  James Hurtak, AFFS, Basel, Switzerland; Prof. Desiree Hurtak, SUNY-Purchase College, New York <affs@affs.org> (AFFS, Wasserburg , GERMANY)
    Coherence as a universal, organizing principle that opposes the increase of entropy, is present throughout the basic field properties of our natural system. Coherence can be applied not only to local, but nonlocal, atemporal interactions. Understanding a coherent system would help to examine the number of quantum entanglement measures that quantify the total state as has been demonstrated by studies on photons, atoms and electrons (Chou, 2005; Bao, 2003). An explanation of the basic coherent properties can also be applied to the behavior of living systems and not only to the physics of matter. Here both the biological and the psychological experience are effected. For the biological experience we see how there exists a high degree of coherence of a quantum state in the order of living systems, because otherwise any mass movement within the environment would create, instead, “increasing” random effects. Regarding the psychological experience which includes cognition, memory, intention, intuition, perception and reasoning, we see coherence working as a “stream” of consciousness flow which manages and focuses life through linear adaptability and the organization of thoughts, events, and actions. However, to apply quantum entanglement in a living coherent systems, we need to address both the “mind-body” problem and that of “bioentanglement”. The latter claims that quantum entanglement only becomes applicable to particles that have previously interacted, that is, for neurons to be entangled, there must be some prior physical interaction in the brain. No doubt, the structural world comprises various fields and waves structures. The brain process, as it is, with neurons, dendrites and molecules (Hameroff, 2006), merely plays an overlapping role, along side quantum entanglement which exists throughout nature. The brain exists in its own coherent-entangled field within the larger space-time. Because there is an interaction of structures by forces, in essence there is an exchange of virtual particles that works with the stream of consciousness playing out in our physical existence. This paper will examine recent research and models of entanglement as they apply to coherence (and decoherence) in the nature of biological and psychological systems. Chou, CW, et al. (2005) “Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles” in Nature. 2005; 438(7069):828-32. Jiming Bao, et.al (2003) “Optically induced multispin entanglement in a semiconductor quantum well.” in Nature Materials 2, 175–179. Hameroff, Stuart (2006) “Consciousness, Neurobiology and Quantum Mechanics: The Case for a Connection” in The Emerging Physics of Consciousness, edited by Jack Tuszynski, Springer-Verlag, pp. 206-215.   C

52  Quantum stochasticity and neuronal computations  Peter Jedlicka <jedlicka@em.uni-frankfurt.de> (Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J.W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany)
   The nervous system probably cannot display macroscopic quantum (i.e. classically impossible) behaviours such as quantum entanglement, superposition or tunnelling (Koch and Hepp, Nature 440:611, 2006). However, in contrast to this quantum ‘mysticism’ there is an alternative way in which quantum events might influence the brain activity. The nervous system is a nonlinear system with many feedback loops at every level of its structural hierarchy. A conventional wisdom is that in macroscopic objects the quantum fluctuations are self-averaging and thus not important. Nevertheless this intuition might be misleading in the case of nonlinear complex systems. Because of a high sensitivity to initial conditions, in chaotic systems the microscopic fluctuations may be amplified upward and thereby affect the system's output. In this way stochastic quantum dynamics might sometimes alter the outcome of neuronal computations, not by generating classically impossible solutions, but by influencing the selection of many possible solutions (Satinover, Quantum Brain, Wiley & Sons, 2001). I am going to discuss recent theoretical proposals and experimental findings in quantum mechanics, complexity theory and computational neuroscience suggesting that biological evolution is able to take advantage of quantum-computational speed-up. I predict that the future research on quantum complex systems will provide us with novel interesting insights that might be relevant also for neurobiology and neurophilosophy.  C

53  Consciousness as a quantum-like representation of classical unconsciousness  Andrei Khrennikov <Andrei.Khrennikov@vxu.se> (International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics, Economy and Cognitive Science, Vaxjo University, Vaxjo, Sweden)
   We present a quantum-like (QL) model in that contexts (complexes of e.g. mental, social, biological, economic or even political conditions) are represented by complex probability amplitudes. This approach gives the possibility to apply the mathematical quantum formalism to probabilities induced in any domain of science. In our model quantum randomness appears not as irreducible randomness (as it is commonly accepted in conventional quantum mechanics, e.g., by von Neumann and Dirac), but as a consequence of obtaining incomplete information about a system. We pay main attention to the QL description of processing of incomplete information. Our QL model can be useful in cognitive, social and political sciences as well as economics and artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider in a more detail one special application -- QL modeling of brain's functioning. The brain is modeled as a QL-computer. Our model finely combine classical neural dynamics in the unsconscious domain with the QL-dynamics in the consciousness. The presence of OBSERVER collecting information about systems is always assumed in our QL model. Such an observer can be of any kind: cognitive or not, biological or mechanical. Such an observer is able to obtain some information about a system under observation. In general this information is not complete. An observer may collect incomplete information not only because it is really impossible to obtain complete information. (We mention that according to Freud's psychoanalysis human brain can even repress some ideas, so called hidden forbidden wishes and desires, and send them into the unconsciousness.) It may occur that it would be convenient for an observer or a class of observers to ignore a part of information, e.g., about social or political processes. In the present QL model of brain's functioning the brain plays the role of such a (self)-observer. [1] A.Yu. Khrennikov, Quantum-like brain: Interference of minds. BioSystems 84, 225--241 (2006).   C

54  Process-Philosophy and Mental Quantum Events   Spyridon Koutroufinis <koutmsbg@mailbox.tu-berlin.de> (Philosophy, Technical University of Berlin (TU-Berlin), Berlin, Germany)
   The paper investigates the usefulness of the ideas of Alfred North Whitehead for a natural philosophy of organismic processes in general and for the dynamics of the nervous system in particular. Taking the physics of non linear dynamic systems and basic considerations of the philosophy of consciousness as a starting point, we expound fundamental principles and concepts of Whitehead’s process philosophy. Using these principles, the possibility of integrating modern system theoretical methods and findings into a new theory of mental and neural events is elaborated in a way that avoids vitalism and reductionism.   C

55  Memory and Time: Spatial-Temporal Organization of Episodic Memory Analyzed from Molecular Level Perspective  Michael Lipkind <lipkind@macam.ac.il> (Unit of Molecular Virology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel)
   The human episodic (biographical) memory including remembrance, storage and retrieval can be represented as a spatial-temporal arrangement of neural correlates of a current stream of perceived and memorized events accumulated in the brain during an individual’s lifetime and constituting the bulk of an individual’s “I”. While the spatial part of the arrangement is in principle conceivable, any hypothetical mechanism of the temporal part is unimaginable, yet during recollection we know what occurred earlier and what occurred later. The existing theories of neural correlates of memorization are based on two analytical levels: the level of circuits of inter-neuronal connections and the level of intracellular molecular substrate of the brain cortex neuronal massifs. The former looks incompatible with the idea of temporal arrangement of memorized events: any current temporal “assortment” of such events in principle cannot correlate with combinations of rigid anatomical inter-neuronal connections. As to the molecular level, the idea of both the spatial and temporal organizations of the episodic memory does not seem inconceivable. Hence, the temporal chain of currently memorized events, each one interconnecting with the previously memorized events to be further connected with those to be memorized in future, must relate to an integral continuum of the brain intracellular molecular substrate. However, the mechanism of such temporal arrangement remains obscure: What (“Where”) on the intracellular level is that “magic” time axis, according to which the multiple currently memorized events are “strung” (threaded, saved, stored)? Within the existing physical-chemical concepts, the problem seems to be unsolvable. The situation could lead to the assumption that the apprehended temporal succession of memorized events results merely from their mental confrontation and systematization, suggesting that any existence of a genuine temporal arrangement of the currently memorized events is an illusion. The suggested way out of the deadlock is based on the idea of an integral field as a carrier of the memorization. Since the concept of field is compatible with the time parameter, it can be employed as a competent dynamic correlate of the current temporal memorization. Accordingly, memorization of any particular event is correlated with respective change of the field “configuration” expressed as a dynamic state determined by the field parameters’ values. However, if the postulated field is grounded on any known physical fields, e.g. electromagnetic, it must originate from the physical-chemical properties of the brain molecular substrate as its source. Since such “circular”, evidently tautological conclusion has no causal value, a concept of an autonomous field irreducible to the established physical fundamentals is suggested as a correlate of memorization. Published models of the autonomous fields as carriers of consciousness (Libet, Searle, Sheldrake) were criticized as tautological, metaphoric, or esoteric (Lipkind, 2005). The suggested theory of memorization based on the theory of irreducible biological field by Gurwitsch (1944) was elaborated (Lipkind, 2003, 2007), the present communication being its further development. Thus, the episodic memory (biographical events) and semantic memory (individual’s store of knowledge) are represented by molecular “traces” left by afferent to-be-perceived stimuli projected upon the brain’s autonomous field-determined intracellular molecular continuum.  C

56  Cortical Based Model of Object-recognition: Quantum Hebbian Processing with neurally shaped Gabor wavelets.  Chu Kiong Loo, Mitja Perus <ckloo@mmu.edu.my> (Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, Melaka, Malaysia)
   This paper presents a computationally implementable of cortical based model of object recognition using quantum associative memory. The neuro-quantum hybrid model incorporates neural processing up to V1 of the visual cortex, which imput arrives from the retina with the intermediation of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleaus. The initial image is lifted by the simple cells of V1 to a surface in the rototraslation group followed by quantum associative processing in V1, achieving together an object-recognition result in V2 and ITC. Results of our simulation of the central quantum-like parts of the bio-model, receiving neurally pre-processed inputs, are presented. This part contains our original simulated storage by multiple quantum interference of image-encoding Gabor Wavelets done in a Hebbian way.  C

57  Why panpsychism falls into dualistic metaphysical framework?  Jaison A. Manjaly <jmanjaly@gmail.com> (Centre for Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP, India)
   Galen Strawson (2006) claims that real physicalism entails panpsychism. This paper aims to assess the ontological merits and demerits of this claim. I argue that although there are certain explanatory advantages for pansychism over emergentism, it does not contribute anything novel to strengthen the physicalsitic thesis. For, the concept of panpsychism is rooted in a metaphysical misconception of ‘experience’. I further show that, because of this misconception, panpsychism cannot be held without falling into a dualistic metaphysical framework. Moreover, Strawson’s version of panpsychism brings back the burdens of causal interaction and non-Cartesian substance dualism.  C

58  The Subject of Physics  Donald Mender, NA <solzitsky@aol.com> (Psychiatry, Yale University, Rhinebeck, NY)
   Physicists today embrace theoretical parsimony and experimental accuracy as guides toward progress in the understanding of natural objects. Yet, beyond these criteria, it is also historically true that large paradigmatic leaps forward at the foundations of physics have repeatedly entailed reevaluations of the human subject's place within nature. In particular, revolutionaries have transformed the physical sciences by knocking the subjective center of orthodox perspectives off balance in some unexpected new way, rather than by merely altering the objects under scrutiny. Copernicus simplified astronomy by uprooting Ptolemaic astronomers from their geocentric ground; Einstein relativized the motion of a light source by democratizing the sensorium of the physical observer; Heisenberg captured the phenomenology of the subatomic microcosm by injecting jitter into an experimenter's act of measurement. Hence it may make sense to look for future foundational advances, for example in the quest to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity, via even more radically "decentered" shifts of the scientific subject's anchor within nature, rather than in more and more baroque revisions of yet undetected physical objects, such as transformations of particles into strings and branes, of classical space-time into a topological weave of "loops," of bosons and fermions into bosinos and sfermions, and of phase transitions into Higgs fields. Instead, a more productive route toward the next synthetic breakthrough in physics may be to decenter the very plurality of the physical observer, beyond the statistical influence of second quantization on connections merely among wavefunctional objects. Specfiically, the structure of quantum gravitational operators may morph to include not only linearly independent individual acts of measurement implied by the superpositional probabilities of path integration, but also fungibly collective and frangibly fragmented measuring agencies instantiated respectively through Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics embedded intrinsically within relationships among the operators themselves. Such a "decentered" perspective on quantum gravitational measurement could offer several potential advantages. First, its locus on the observer's side of the measurement "cut" could replace supersymmetrical partners in the objective domain, offering an explanation if bosinos and sfermions are not found in future high-energy accelerator experiments. Second, provision of differing statistically "inertial" (i. e. equilibrated) reference frames for a diverse multiplicity of observing subjects could obviate any need for spontaneous symmetry breaking as an explanation for departures from invariance should Higgs particles fail to manifest themselves. Third, nonlinearizing effects on the probability sums of perturbative series could serve as a natural improvement upon renormalization procedures. Fourth and finally, a "decentering" of pluralities applicable to the quantum-gravitational observer might offer new ways of understanding scientific subjectivity per se in terms of polysemy across a range of collective, individual, and component properties relevant to gravitonic processes in the measuring agent's brain. A hermeneutic expansion of the Penrose-Hameroff hypothesis might thus ensue. Empirical testing of such an enhanced theoretical perspective might follow from detailed predictions of emergent resonances among multiple acts of quantum gravitational measurement.  C

59  The origin of non-locality in consciousness  Ken Mogi <kenmogi@csl.sony.co.jp> (Fundamental Research Laboratory, Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan)
   Quantum mechanics, being an inseparable element of reality, naturally enters into the consideration of every phenomenon that occurs in the physical universe. As far as consciousness is an integral part of the reality as we understand it, quantum mechanics needs to be ultimately involved either directly or indirectly in its origin. In particular, the apparent non-locality and integrity in the phenomenology of consciousness and its physical correlates is suggestive of a quantum involvement. Here I examine the nature of non-locality in the physical correlates of consciousness and its relation to quantum mechanics. The concept of the neural correlates of consciousness (Crick and Koch 2003), when pursued beyond the currently prevalent role as a practical framework in which to analyze neuropsychological data, logically necessitates a non-trivial emergence through the mutual relation between physical entities and events that constitute cognitive processes in the brain (Mach's principle in perception, Mogi 1999). Since from this standpoint the spatio-temporal histories sustaining the cognitive processes, including, but not necessarily restricted to, the action potentials of the neurons are the essential correlates of consciousness, non-locality becomes a logical necessity in the ingredients of consciousness. Non-locality has been known to be an essential property of quantum mechanics since its early period (e.g., Einstein, Podolsky, & Rosen 1935). However, the combination of high temperature and large number of degrees of freedom involved in brain activities are usually regarded as definitely precluding any possible quantum effects. However, there exists possible routes of quantum involvement in macroscopic and "warm" phenomena such as brain processes. The key is in the fact that macroscopic objects, although ostensively obeying equations of Newtonian dynamics, rely on quantum effects for the very stability that makes them classic objects in the beginning. Analysis of an information processing system usually starts from the assumption that its essence can be captured by following those parameters explicitly covarying with the information the system supposedly handles. Quantum mechanical effects hardly enter the picture when only explicitly varying parameters are considered. On the other hand, the implicitly sustaining structures that do not covary with the processed information can contribute to the phenomenal aspects of information, such as qualia and self-awareness. The ubiquitous role of metacognition, the origin of subjective time, and the way spatio-temporally distributed activities are "compressed" into percepts in conscious experience, are discussed in the context of the implicit and explicit in cortical information processing. References Einstein, A., Podolsky, B., and Rosen, N. (1935) Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete? Phys. Rev. 47 777-780. Mogi, K. (1999) Response Selectivity, Neuron Doctrine, and Mach's Principle. in Riegler, A. & Peschl, M. (eds.) Understanding Representation in the Cognitive Sciences. New York: Plenum Press. 127-134. Crick, F. and Koch, C. (2003) A framework for consciousness. Nat. Neurosci., 6, 119-126. Taya, F. and Mogi, K. (2004) The variant and invariant in perception. Forma, 19, pp.25-37.   C

60  Teleological mechanism for the simulation argument  James Nystrom <jnystrom@shepherd.edu> (Computer Science, Math and Engineering, Shepherd University, Shepherdstown, WV)
   I begin the talk by providing an overview of Bostrom’s now seminal 2003 paper “Are You Living in a Computer Simulation?”. Herein I summarize Bostrom's simulation argument (where one possibility is that we are living in a simulation – specifically as part of an ancestor simulation created by a posthuman society). I take issue with Bostrom's functionalist position on Mind and present a modified simulation disjunction (MSD) wherein I utilize a dualism close in concept to a funda-mentalism of the Penrose-Hameroff variety. Here I eschew Bostrom's ancestor simulations as a type of functionalist masquerade. However, I do maintain the possibility that we are living in a (complete Universe) simulation, created by posthuman simulators (PHS). I note that if we are in a simulation without a functionalist model of Mind, we need structures in the simulation that can support and/or capture Mind activities (e.g., a brain). Here Mind takes on a Gnostic characteristic, in that Mind itself would need to fall down (if you will) from some non-spatio-temporal habitation (a Richard Rorty term) as in the supposed doings of a Gnostic Demiurge. This model of Mind is similar to Plato's Divine Mind or Huxley's Mind-at-Large, and similar to Penrose's use of an underlying Platonic reality (a so-called basic level of Universe). In the third (and last) part of the talk I take the assumption that we are living in a complete Universe simulation. I posit a query concerning how our supposed PHS could implement algorithmic control of a Universe. I need provide background asides before I answer this query. The first aside is (I) a discussion of Universe as a computation in terms energy interactions which take fundamental activity of Universe to be operating near Planck lengths and Planck time. I introduce the terms Negative Universe (a R. Buckminster Fuller term) and reality flux. Here Negative Universe is akin to Penrose's Platonic and Mental worlds, and reality flux describes the ensembles of virtual photons and anti-particles, some of which seemingly pass in and out of existence. Another aside (II) compares casual and teleological effects. I use physically-based arguments, and suggest that the typically arbitrary adoption of the causal viewpoint for most process in Universe is in fact an observation selection effect resulting from an immersion in a forward progression of time. I also (III) review the classic dualism (of mind and matter) and compare this to Penrose-Hameroff funda-mentalism. As a result of this aside, I take Mind as something that resides partially in Negative Universe. The last aside (IV) presents Gravity as an instantaneous most economical relationship of all energy events (as R. Buckminster Fuller did), and this then places the Gravity (calculation/update) in Negative Universe. I can now answer the query and propose mechanisms with which PHS could computationally steer a Universe (such as ours). Since Gravity and Mind have both been surmised to contain a non-spatio-temporal essence (in Negative Universe), I suggest that PHS could in fact use both Gravity and Mind as teleological control mechanisms for a Universe simulation.   C

61  Entropy Reversal and Quantum-Like Coherence in the Brain  Alfredo Pereira Jr., Polli, Roberson S. <apj@ibb.unesp.br> (State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil)
   Quantum-like macro-state coherence can be generated in the living brain by means of molecular mechanisms that induce local entropy reversal (at the cost of increasing environmental entropy). The idea that entropy reversal can locally increase (bio)physical organization derives from conjectures by Maxwell, Schrödinger and Monod. Contemporary models of the Ion-Trap Quantum Computer (ITQC) can be viewed as belonging to the "Maxwell Demon" family of systems, since: a) the movements of the ions are controlled to produce physical organization; b) external energy (the laser) is used to transfer information to the system; and c) the system’s activity (phonon modes related to spin values of different electronic configurations) support the performance of reversible operations. Analogously, in the living brain, biological mechanisms - as neuronal membrane channel gating - control the movement of ions. Astroglial cells, being responsible for the distribution of free energy (in the form of glucose) from arterial blood to neurons, and actively participating in tripartite synapses, may also be involved in an entropy reversal process. We propose that calcium ion populations trapped in the astrocytic syncytium, while interacting with neuronal electric fields, operate as a large-scale ITQC, with an architecture similar to the model presented by Kielpinski, Monroe and Wineland (2002). On the one hand, contemporary schemes for ITQC with hot ions (Poyatos, Cirac and Zoller, 1998; Molmer and Sorensen, 1999; Milburn, Schneider and James, 2000; Kielpinski et al., 2000) reveal that multimodal phonon patterns compose complex coherent states. On the other hand, empirical results from brain science indicate that astrocytes participate in the sustaining of neuronal excitation (Haydon and Carmignoto, 2006) and onset of oscillatory synchrony (Fellin et al., 2004), both functions closely related to conscious processing. Calcium waves in the syncytium are also a medium for large-scale integration (Robertson, 2002). This integration possibly includes inter-hemispheric communication by means of cerebrospinal fluid (a possibility based on the proposal made by Glassey, 2001). In conclusion, we suggest that the brain’s hot, wet and noisy ITQC, composed of a calcium ion population trapped in astrocytes and interacting with neuronal electric fields, can embody complex patterns that compose the contents of consciousness. FELLIN T et al.(2004) Neuronal Synchrony Mediated by Astrocytic Glutamate Through Activation of Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors. Neuron 43(5): 729-43. GLASSEY G(2001) The Neuroglial Cell-Neuropeptide Highway. Published online: http://www.healtouch.com/csft/highway.html HAYDON PG CARMIGNOTO G(2006) Astrocyte Control of Synaptic Transmission and Neurovascular Coupling. Physiol Rev. 86(3): 1009-31. KIELPINSKI D et al.(2000) Sympathetic Cooling of Trapped Ions for Quantum Logic. Physical Review A 61, 032310, p. 1-8. KIELPINSKI D MONROE C WINELAND DJ(2002) Architecture for a Large-Scale Ion-Trap Quantum Computer. Nature 417: 709-711. MILBURN GJ SCHNEIDER S JAMES DFV(2000) Ion Trap Quantum Computing With Warm Ions. Fortschritte der Physik 48: 801-810. MOLMER K SORENSEN A(1999) Multiparticle Entanglement of Hot Trapped Ions. Physical Review Letters 82 (9): 1835-1838. POYATOS JF CIRAC JI ZOLLER P(1998) Quantum Gates With “Hot” Trapped Ions. Physical Review Letters 81, 1322-1325. ROBERTSON JM(2002) The Astrocentric Hypothesis: proposed role of astrocytes in consciousness and memory formation. Journal of Physiology-Paris 96: 251-255.   C

62  Neurons react to ultraweak electromagnetic fields   Rita Pizzi, D. Rossetti; G. Cino; A.L. Vescovi; W. Baer <pizzi@dti.unimi.it> (Department of Information Technologies, University of Milan, Crema, CR, Italy)
   Since 2002 our group has been concerned with the direct acquisition of signals from cultured neurons. During the first experiments we noticed anomalies in the electrical signals coming from separate and isolated neural cultures that suggested that either neurons were extremely sensitive to classical electromagnetic stimulation or some form non-classical communication between isolated systems was occurring. We improved our experimental setup in order to further explore this phenomenon and eliminate possible experimental errors that might bias our results. Our last experiment was consisted of three MEA (Microelectrode Arrays) basins, one filled with human neurons and the others with control liquids. Each basin was in turn irradiated with a laser beam while the other basins were shielded by means of a double opaque Faraday cage. In all cases we found a sharp spike in the electrical activity coming from the neural basin simultaneous to the laser emission, but no activity was present in the two control basins with or without shieldings. To eliminate the possibility of electromagnetic coupling the hardware system was designed with special electronic devices and photo-couplers to avoid any kind of interference between circuits and MEAs. Several tests were performed by means of both oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer to ascertain the absence of cross-talk and induction phenomena. During one of the experiments we substituted the laser with a dummy load in order to simulate the current absorption equivalent to the one generated by the laser and we found the same peak was present. Upon further investigation we concluded that the phenomenon could be due to an electromagnetical field coming from the laser supply circuit that was too weak to be detectible with our measure instruments. Neurons appear to receive and amplify an electromagnetic spike whose value through the air, before reaching the Faraday shielding, is less than 70 microGauss and under the sensitivity of our oscilloscope (2 mV). It must be stressed that in order to cause a neuron spike using a direct electrical stimulation inside the cell, a 30 mV pulse is necessary. The value of the electric and magnetic field under the double Faraday cage is under the sensitivity of our instrumentation but is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude less. We believe the neurons are the active receiving element because the MEA control circuit and the activation circuit are completely separated, the MEA basins are connected to the ground, their shape is not suitable to act as antenna and the spikes observed in the neural basin are never present in the other control basins. Though the exact mechanism for the observed neural response has not been identified we can at the moment hypothesize that neurons act as antennas for extremely weak electromagnetic fields. The neural reactivity may be due to the presence of microtubules in their cellular structure. Microtubules are structurally similar to carbon nanotubes, whose tubular shape makes them natural cavity antennas. New analyses with more sensitive instruments, and a mu-metal cage to avoid magnetic fields, are underway to further investigate the nature of this extreme neural sensitivity.   C

63  The Mind’s Image of the World, the Classical Physics of Motion, and the Quantum Physics of the Brain   Arkady Plotnitsky <plotnits@purdue.edu> (Theory and Cultural Studies, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana)
   This paper takes as its point of departure Alain Berthoz’ argument for the significance of physical movement in our understanding of the brain’s functioning. According to Berthoz, perception is not only an interpretation of sensory messages but also an internal simulation of action, thereby making perception and action irreducibly intertwined. The fact that every moving body must follow the laws of classical mechanics compels the brain to invent strategies to make complex mechanical calculations, and, hence, to internalize the basic laws of geometry and kinematics. Indeed, the whole conceptual structure of, first, Euclidean geometry and then of classical physics (including kinematics), or our physical-mathematical image of the world, may be seen as arising from this classical-like phenomenal image (a thought image) created by the brain and its capacities of both remembering the past and predicting the future. Berthoz also links the brain’s functioning, as grounded in motion, to the Bayesian theory of probability. The latter deals with predictions concerning the outcome of individual events on the basis of the available information and, hence, conceptually memory, rather than on statistical inferences based on frequencies of repeated events. Berthoz speaks of “a memory for prediction.” Thus, our interaction with the world is defined by taking chances and our success in the world by taking our chances well. Berthoz argues that, by focusing primarily on the connectivities within the brain, current neurobiological and neurophysiological theories by and large fail to take into account these, motion and environment oriented, workings of the brain, which he believes to be primary and fundamental to its development and functioning, or evolutionary emergence. Our biological constitution appears to be especially suited for creating the classical image of the world and succeeds in the world by working with this image. This, however, does not mean that either the world or the brain need themselves be seen as classical physical systems. The ultimate aim of this paper is to explore potential interconnections between Berthoz’s theory and Umezawa’s and Vitiello’s quantum-theoretical approaches to the brain, based on the understanding of the brain as a dissipative quantum system, continuously interactive with environment—the world. Although along somewhat different lines, both Berthoz and Vitiello argue that the brain creates a certain image of the world in our mind. By so doing, the brain enables the body to interact with and to live in the actual world, whose ultimate constitution appears to be quantum and may, ultimately, be beyond the brain’s (classical) image of it and possibly beyond any conception our mind can form. The question broached by this paper is why the physical machinery of the brain that creates the classical physical image of the world in order to interact, most especially probabilistically or by taking our chances well, with the actual world might need to be physically quantum. In other words, the question is why the physically quantum doubling of the world and the brain may be necessary to create the classical image of the world and of the mind itself.  C

64  Human Biocatalysis and Human Entanglement. How to Fill the Gap between Quantum and Social Sciences?   Massimo Pregnolato, Paola Zizzi <maxp@pbl.unipv.it> (Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University od Pavia, Pavia, Italy)
   In complexity science, entanglement is what exists before order emerges. The role of quantum entanglement as the precursor to emergent order is much discussed in physics [1]. For instance, Gell-Mann [2] defines an entanglement field as a 'fine-grained structure of paired histories among quantum states'. The notion of the primordial pool which existed before the origin of life is also much discussed in biology [3]. According to Christopher Davia [4] the evolution of life is the evolution of catalysis. Indeed, the biosphere, taken as a whole, may be considered a macroscopic process of catalysis. From the evolution of catalysis, from specific to non-specific, Man has emerged, the most non-specific catalyst on Earth. McKelvey has found that an understanding of entanglement from quantum theory can throw useful light on the nature of ties among people [5,6] and their impact on emergent order in organisations. In terms of human behaviour, he explained that a high correlation between the paired histories of people would mean they think in similar ways; a low correlation would mean they go in different directions. We define Human Biocatalyst (HB) a human being able to catalyze human relationships in a selective way. A HB selects people with high relative affinity and catalyzes reactions between them through the communication. The products of these interactions could be a tangible human-human like-entanglement. Dean Radin has done extensive work on the idea of Human Entanglement. He describes experiments that shown a non-local connection between human beings when they ‘think’ of each other [7]. Entanglement, when included in quantum games [8], makes (somehow) everybody win. Entangled quantum strategies are such that all players cooperate, and classical egoism (destructive) is replaced by quantum altruism (constructive). Entanglement might explain some forms of telepathy, actually quantum pseudo-telepathy [9] between “quantum-minded” players who play a quantum game. We think that Basic logic [10] could be a good starting point towards a deeper understanding of the Quantum world also because it is the only logic which can accommodate the new logical connective @ = “entanglement”[11]. One of our dearest hopes is that Basic logic, once applied to the study of the deepest levels of the unconscious, might be useful for the care of some mental diseases, like schizophrenia, which are still wayward with respect to usual psychotherapy. The Quantumbionet will be presented. The network will include well-known intellectuals, teachers and laboratories supporting the development of sciences and aimed to play an active role on the international stage for human health and wellness enhancement. The network will be the bridge between science and human behaviour.  C

65  Whitehead’s tri-modal theory of perception in the light of empirical research   Franz Riffert, <Franz.Riffert@sbg.ac.at> (Education, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria)
   Whitehead has developed a bold theory of perception based on the concepts of his process philosophy (Whitehead 1978). According to him it is one of the shortcomings of modern philosophy not to shed any light on the sciences. In elaborating his theory of perception he showed how such a fertile interchange between sciences (psychology) and philosophy (process metaphysics) might be possible and what new perspectives follow from it. Whitehead’s theory of perception is tri-modal i.e. there are three different modes of perception which are related “genetically”. The most basic and most primitive of these three modes is ‘causal efficacy’ which is a form of immediate and rich albeit vague grasping of one’s surrounding. It is best conceived in neuro-physiological and/or sensory-motor terms and is connecting the perceiver directly with his/her environment. Based on this primitive mode and elaborated by abstraction and attention the second mode of perception is developed: the mode of ‘presentational immediacy’. In this more advanced mode of perception certain aspects of the rich content of the mode of ‘causal efficacy’ are abstracted and highlighted. These specific aspects are given in a clear and distinct way as sensa such as exact spatial and temporal relations, distinct forms and colours. The most advanced mode of perception, the mode of our everyday perception, is generated by integrating the two more primitive perceptive modes; one of these two more primitive modes acts as symbol while the other one takes the role of the designate; therefore Whitehead termed this mode “symbolic reference”. In this mode the feature of consciousness is introduced since according to Whitehead it is the subjective feeling of the contrast of what might be (symbol) and what is in fact the case (designate). Some of the features of Whitehead’s philosophical theory of perception can be tested empirically: First one may look for evidence in the neuro-sciences as well as in psychology in favour of its tri-modal character. Second the general tendency of perception from to distinct apprehension which finally is accompanied by consciousness can be tested against the body of research results in psychology of perception. Finally Whitehead’s claim that a primitive mode of perception does exist can be examined because he has described the characteristics of this perceptive mode; they can be compared with psychological evidence. Micro genetic (Werner 1956; Bachmann 2001) and percept genetic research (Smith 2000) is dealing with perception much in the same way as Whitehead. Results confirm Whitehead’s position concerning a general tendency from vague to distinct information processing in perception. The tri-modal character of Whitehead’s theory finds support in Anthony Marcel’s well-known tachistoscope experiments which are presented in his paper ‘Conscious and Unconscious Perception: Experiments on Visual Masking and Word Recognition’ (1983). Victor Rosenthal in a micro genetic experiment on reading (2005) speculates about two distinct neuronal pathways in the brain: one processing available information quickly but in a crude way, while the other one processes information in a detailed way but much slower. This also to some extent supports Whitehead’s position.   C

66  Dynamic Geometry, Bayesian approach to Brain function and Computability  Sisir Roy <sisir@isical.ac.in> (physics and applied mathematics, indian statistical institute, kolkata, w.b., india)
   Recently, the present author along with his collaborators introduced the concept of dynamic geometry towards understanding brain function. This is based on the idea of functional geometry as proposed by Pellionisz and Llinas. This interpretation assumes that the relation between the brain and the external world is determined by the ability of the Central Nervous System (CNS) to construct an internal model of the external world using an interactive geometrical relationship between sensory and motor expression. This approach opened new vistas not only in brain research but also in understanding the foundations of geometry itself. The approach named tensor network theory is sufficiently rich to allow specific computational modelling and addressed the issue of prediction, based on Taylor series expansion properties of the system, at the neuronal level, as a basic property of brain function. It was actually proposed that the evolutionary realm is the backbone for the development of an internal functional space that, while being purely representational, can interact successfully with the totally different world of the so called “external reality”. Now if the internal space or functional space is endowed with stochastic metric tensor properties, then there will be a dynamic correspondence between events in the external world and their specification in the internal space. We shall call this dynamic geometry since the minimal time resolution of the brain, associated with 40 Hz oscillations of neurons and their network dynamics is considered to be responsible for recognizing external events and generating the concept of simultaneity. In this framework, mindness is considered as one of the several global physiological computational states (functional states) that the brain can generate. Since, computation and information processing are accepted terms in neuroscience, it is necessary to clarify the meaning of computation and information measure. The functional states are considered to be internal states related to the metric property associated to CNS. In fact they are being generated due to intrinsic properties of neurons. It indicates that Bayesian decision theory and Fisher information might play significant roles in understanding brain function. It is found that CNS does not compute rather optimizes the behaviours. This optimization of behaviours is similar to “computation capacity” for digital machine as proposed by Toffoli. This perspective will shed new light on the issue of computability vs. non-computability of brain.  C

67  Neural Correlates and Advanced Physics  David Scharf <dscharf108@gmail.com> (Physics, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA)
   Although researchers are daily uncovering new information about the brain—from an increasingly exhaustive mapping of its neural pathways to a more thorough and detailed understanding of the correlations with conscious experience and cognitive faculties—still, at its current stage of development, neuroscience is not yet in a position to provide a comprehensive analysis of the microphysical underpinnings of conscious experience. The program for the neural correlates of consciousness does not claim to provide such a comprehensive microanalysis; instead, it offers to outline a global view of both the broad features and logical constraints of such a microanalysis. This program embodies two explicit assumptions: (1) that conscious experience supervenes on its neural basis, where supervenience implies that if the physical basis is present, then the corresponding conscious experience will occur, and (2) that the conscious experience is dependent on the physical. This second assumption casts the neural correlates program in expressly physicalistic terms. Also, a third, usually unstated, assumption is not harmless: Discussions of the neural correlates of consciousness take for granted that (3) these correlates are governed by classical physics—that any effects of advanced physics will be insignificant, will average out, or will otherwise not affect the brain’s determination of conscious experience. Unfortunately for those who take this route, assumptions (2) and (3) lock the researcher in a pernicious dilemma. Let’s suppose for a moment that these radical physicalists were right. Then a particular configuration of neurons firing (or other correlates) would determine any given conscious experience or mental activity. Naturally, this presents a burden of explanation: Given the dependency on the physical, how is it that mental content is internally coherent and intelligible, and how is it that (ordinarily) our mental representations accurately reflect the external world? A pointed way to frame the dilemma is to note that the logical and scientific train of reasoning leading to the neural correlates program itself would be determined by the underlying neural correlates, thus calling into question its own justification. This is a similar bind that Hilary Putnam and others identified as arising from the brain-in-a-vat scenarios, and which led to Putnam’s wholesale rejection of the neural correlates program—with its mind-brain dependence relation. But, as we see things, there are better alternatives to be had than Putnam’s conclusion. Successfully explaining—or at the very least allowing for—the internal coherence and external reliability of consciousness, in the context of a neural correlates program, fundamentally depends on the parameters of the specific type of physicalism we adopt. This is where advanced physics may come to the rescue. Indeed, certain aspects of consciousness that are incompatible with a physicalism based on classical physics may be not only consistent with, but explainable in terms of, a physicalism grounded in advanced physics.   C

68  Quantum Theory, the Dream Metaphor and the Meta-Brain Model  Thomas Schumann <tschuman@calpoly.edu> (Physics, California Polytechnic State University , San Luis Obispo, California)
   We argue from the quantum double-slit experiment, from the evolution of emotions and other issues that the mental world influences the physical just as the physical influences the mental. From analogy with electro-magnetism (changing electric field produces changing magnetic field and vice-versa) that the mental and physical worlds are really one entity. From this comes the dream metaphor in which the mental and the physical are the same; this fits the quantum theory of measurement in which an observable of a system becomes "real" only when it is observed (the system is no longer in a superpostion of possible values for the observable). With the associated model of the "meta-brain" we derive intuitively the disturbance of a system when it is observed, the non-commutation of observables and, using the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation, we derive the observer dependent nature of the wave function. The wave function is mental and thus physical as well. We discuss, in the context of the dream metaphor the "filling in of history by observation" associated with Wheeler's "delayed choice" thought experiment. We require a "recursion principle" by which the meta-brain produces the dreams or streams of consciousness which produce brains which produce the streams of consciousness. The meta-brain contains the non-local hidden variables which determine the content of the "dreams" or streams of consciousness. We discuss the anthropic principle within the "recursion principle" and eliminate from the multi-verse all (dream) universes which cannot produce a brain. We also consider the concept of a wave function for an entire universe to be meaningless in this context as an individual cannot observe the whole universe. That results, at least in part, because of the limit on the speed of information transfer (the speed of light).  C

69  Overlap with the different QUA   Francis Schwanauer <franz@gw-in.usm.maine.edu> (Phiulosophy, USM, Portland, Maine)
   ABSTRACT: Renewed efforts to gauge the informative aspect in quantum effects has finally identified graviton and photon as the lowest promulgative degree of about-ness in quantum-interference. What makes the “built-in proof” of these rest-mass-less particles convincingly informative, is the fact of their being shared by overlapping parent particles. This most recently detected shortcut between presentation and representation, quantum-inference and quantum-causation, or sameness between showing and telling, reduces the new grammar of quantum interaction to such elemental laws as acceptable proximity, limits to collapse, and/or expansion, between the sufficiently “different” qua the other, and the elegant sharing and seamless transference of energy between spatial and temporal neighborhoods respectively. This, however, turns inertial frames into the axiomatic monopoly of consciousness, which not only dominates what implies in quantum-inference, but also what conditions in quantum-causation. If, therefore, conscious quantum-interference (qua quantum-information, transfer, etc.) holds, then the grip of consciousness becomes no less pervasive than that of a gravitational field on both the included and the neighboring phenomena. Though still proportional or restricted to its inertial frame as parent particle or self-inclusive superposition, it becomes the active agent behind the manipulation of its representational apparatus and the authentic origin of synchrony. This is shown both by its capacity to hurl never less than 2 such items as positive mass particles in the form of classical waves in different directions within the two halves of its very brain at the speed of light (cp. the Yang-Mills theory), and its ability to coordinate unheard-of extremes, not-withstanding contrary alternatives (cp. Feynman’s quantum weirdness), for a final choice and decision procedure on the promulgation of matter and/or anti-matter to suit its long run purposes. In short, if quantum-coherence between the sufficiently “different” by way of overlap holds, so will quantum-interference together with its more or less distant echo, the synthetic nature of quantum effects.   C

70  Causality, Randomness, and Free Will  Richard Shoup <shoup@boundary.org> (Boundary Institute, Saratoga, CA)
   The experience of free will has often been regarded as a hallmark of consciousness, yet its meaning and very existence have been debated for millenia. In this talk, we explore the complex relationship between free will, determinism, causality (both forward and backward), and quantum randomness. The latter, a deep and central assumption in quantum theory, is associated with measurement interactions. From an analysis based on quantum entropy, it is proposed that quantum measurement is properly understood as a unitary three-way interaction, with no collapse, no fundamental randomness, and no barrier to backward influence. Experiments with quantum-random devices suggest that retro-causal effects are seen frequently in various forms, and can be shown to explain some anomalous phenomena such as clairvoyance and precognition. It is argued that all interactions are indeed unitary, reversible, and thus deterministic, but that large-number effects give a persistent illusion nearly equivalent to free will.   C

71  Can a Computer have a Mind?: Non-computability of Consciousness  Daegene Song <dsong@kias.re.kr> (School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul, Korea)
   Penrose has suggested that there may be a non-computable aspect in consciousness at the fundamental level as in Godel's incompleteness theorem or Turing's halting problem. It is shown that, as in Penrose's suggestion, consciousness in the frame work of quantum computation yields a physical example of the non-computable halting problem. The assumption of the existence of the quantum halting machine leads into a contradiction when a vector representing the observer's reference frame is also the system which is to be unitarily evolved, i.e. consciousness in quantum language, in both the Schrodinger and Heisenberg pictures.  C

72  Fundamental Biological Quantum Measurement Processes  Michael Steiner, Uzi Awret, R. W. Rendell, Sisir Roy, <mjsasdf@yahoo.com> (Center for Quantum Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA)
   Wigner, Von Neumann and others believed that consciousness and quantum state evolution are related. While this is a difficult open question, a simpler question is whether or not a process other than Schrödinger's equation is involved in basic biological processes. It is well known that use of Schrödinger's equation alone to treat interactions generally results in non-classical superpositions. Yet nature has managed to provide recognition processes as well as store information that appears to be completely classical, that is without superposition. Hence it seems reasonable to examine whether or not certain biological processes are somehow associated with the measurement process. We will explore the nature of the dynamic transition from Schrodinger only, i.e. wave only to where one gets measurement or collapse. We are supposing that the biological domain is where the collapse occurs. We examine biological macromolecules which enables the creation of biological records and the finalizing of biological recognition processes. We will be especially interested in biological macromolecules and systems that were designed to function close to the border separating the two domains. We calculate the threshold for several basic biological processes and compare this to the lower bound TL calculated by canvassing current quantum experiments on mesoscopic systems. It is argued that most fundamental biological process require recognition processes that must be inherently based on the measurement process. That is, nature has designed its systems taking into account the size or energy needed for measurement to occur. If this is the case, then we should be able to learn about the characteristics of measurement by examining biological systems. We will examine whether there is biological evidence that a threshold exists in (delta)E(delta)X > T. Several biological fundamental processes are examined. The first is the manner in which protein chains are recognized. One of the basic and ancient elements that is common in all three domains of life—the Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archae is the signal recognition particle (SRP). The SRP has basic functionality that would be consistent with the measurement process. The SRP recognizes and binds to a signal sequence carried by the ribosome and then guides it to the rough endoplastic reticulum (ER). These binding energies usually have three types of contributions, i.e. electrostatic, hydrogen bonds and induced dipole-dipole interactions or Van der Waals’ interactions. Other processes examined include high affinity protein interactions and protein RNA complexes that are crucial to biological recognition and record creation. Antibody substrate, P-MHC TCR complexes, hormone and their corresponding receptors and interaction hotspots will also be examined. We will also review the current status of mesoscopic physics, and show where experiments that have verified Schrödinger evolution lie in terms of T. We will see that most experiments that have been conducted actually have a small (delta)E(delta)X. For example, superconducting squid systems typically have a large delta X but very small (delta)E. Such experiments give us a lower bound TL on the threshold. Based on the most up-to-date experiments, we will provide an estimate of TL . We will see that a given threshold can describe quite well very different physical situations such as ionization and the Rydberg atom, and nuclear processes.   C

73  Why meaning is the harder matter: a Boh(e)mian anthropology   Koen Stroeken <koen.stroeken@ant.kuleuven.be> (Anthropology, University of Leuven, Huldenberg, Belgium)
   Mainstream anthropology has kept itself outside the mind/matter debate, just as most neuroscientists have, albeit for the opposite reason. Students of culture feel hopelessly dualistic when confronted with the dominant materialism that recasts the debate as a mechanistic challenge, that of neurocomputation, which attributes to the brain a sort of ‘immaculate conception’ of consciousness. If a hundred years of research of cultures taught us anything it is that the principle of natural selection can describe the function and survival of ideas (Atran, Sperber) but not their content and origin, that is, the semantic stuff selected. Meanings appear to be universally shared despite our brains being unique individual constellations of absolutely separate matter. That is why, in practice, ethnographers treat human minds as selections from a common consciousness. Defying both materialism and Cartesian dualism, the implication is that subjective experience arises not from 'mother nature' alone, but from interacting with another source of causation, 'father culture' so to speak. This is another way of saying, with Bohm, that matter does not equal consciousness and that we need meaning, a second, moulding (hence harder) type of matter, to bridge both. From an anthropologist's perspective the best candidate for an interdisciplinary paradigm of thought indeed seems Bohm's solution to the quantum riddle: our classical spacetime, the explicate order, selects from an implicate order of potentialities. A cultural selection from the quantum multiverse constitutes the particular spacetime that is our universe, and thus consistently determines what humans can be conscious of and measure. This measured content of consciousness has been experimentally proven to be non-local and quantum entangled (Aspect, Wheeler). What does this mean in a cultural reading of experiments? The fact of our conscious perception knowing the future betrays our physical belonging to a more encompassing reality, the multiverse, for which our (Einsteinian) spacetime is a selection, entirely completed as selections are. Our mind stands as it were at the edge of spacetime, itself unfortunately (as Bohm remarked) the only world we can think. Humans are bohemians in their world. I conclude more concretely with data on spirit possession which illustrate the exceptional parasympathetic nervous system of the human species. Naturally selected to suspend homeostatic reactions and to stand emotions, our body (not just the brain) managed to use the binary principle of meaning systems (inclusion/ exclusion) to further control homeostasis (intrusion/ synchrony) and become conscious of more. In biological terms consciousness would thus be the by-product arising during this suspension and control, for which I tentatively consider a number of macro-neural correlates.   C

74  Consciousness and the measurement problem: A possible objective resolution  Fred Thaheld <fthaheld@directcon.net> (Folsom, Calif.)
    A recent mathematical analysis of the measurement problem by Adler (1), from the standpoint of Ghirardi's (2,3) Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory, reveals that collapse of the wave function takes place in the rod cells of the retina in an objective fashion following amplification of the signal, rather than in a subjective fashion (as had been proposed by Ghirardi et al) in the brain, mind or consciousness. This analysis is in agreement with the positions taken by Shimony (4) and Thaheld (5), that this event takes place in the rod cells of the retina but, at an earlier stage prior to amplification, involving the conformational change of the rhodopsin molecule. It is of historical interest to note here that both Wigner (6) (later in life) and Dirac (7) also espoused an objective process. Additional supporting evidence for an objective apaproach can be found in the persual of rhodopsin molecule and retinal rod cell schematics (8), which graphically illustrate why collapse has to take place in this fashion. This can also be subjected to 2 different empirical approaches, one involving excised retinal tissue mounted on a microelectrode array and superposed photon states (9) or, through molecular interferometry (10,11) involving matter-wave diffraction, where a "collapsing" wave packet will lead to a suppression of interference. This proposed solution to the 7 decades-old dilemma of the measurement problem, calling for an actual collapse mechanism, requires a modification of the Schroedinger equation to include nonlinear discontinuous changes. This will then allow one to address one or more related issues such as the Heisenberg 'cut' between the quantum and classical worlds, the validity of Everett's 'many worlds' theory (12), raises the possibility for controllable superluminal communication (13), that any living system with or without eyes might possess this same collapse ability, the maintenance of entanglement after repeated measurements, with interesting implications for the Schroedinger's 'cat' concept, finally leading to a new approach to the SETI issue via astrobiological nonlocality at the cosmological level (14). References: 1. Adler, S., 2006. quant-ph/0605072. 2. Aicardi, F., Borsellino, J., Ghirardi, G.C., Grassi, R. 1991. Found. Phys. Lett. 4, 109. 3. Ghirardi, G.C., 1999. quant-ph/9810028. 4. Shimony, A., 1998. Comments on Leggett's "Macroscopic Realism", in: Quantum measurement: Beyond paradox. R.A. Healey, G. Hellman, eds. Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis. 5. Thaheld, F.H., 2005. quant-ph/0509042. 6. Wigner, E., 1999. in: Essay Review: Wigner's view of physical reality. M. Esfeld. Stud. Hist. philos.Mod. Phys. 30 B, 145. 7. Dirac, P.A.M., 1930. The principles of quantum mechanics. Clarendon, Oxford. 8. Kandel, E.R., Schwartz, J.H., Jessell, T.M., 2000. Principles of neural science. 4th ed. McGraw-hill, New York. (See especially p. 511, Fig. 26-3 and p. 515, Fig. 26-6. 9. Thaheld, F.H., 2003. BioSystems 71, 305. 10. Carlip, S., Salzman, P., 2006. gr-qc/0606120. 11. Zeilinger, A., 2005. Probing the limits of the quantum world. Physics World. March. 12. Everett, H., 1957. Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 454. 13. Thaheld, F.H., 2006. physics/0607124. 14. Thaheld, F.H., 2006. physics/0608285.   C

75  A New Theory About Time   Jeff Tollaksen, Yakir Aharonov and Sandu Popescu <jtollaks@gmu.edu> (Dept of Physics & Dept of Computational Sciences, GMU, Fairfax, va, usa)
   We present a fundamentally new approach to time evolution within Quantum Theory. Several advantages of this new picture over the standard formulation of Quantum Theory are 1) it can represent multi-time correlations which are similar to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen/Bohm entanglement but instead of being between two particles in space, they are correlations for a single particle between two different times, 2) dynamics and kinematics can be unified within the same language, and 3) it introduces a new, more fundamental form of complementarity (namely between dynamics and kinematics), 4) it suggests a new approach to time-transience or subjective becoming, one of the most fundamental aspects of conscious experience. The last item is significant given Einstein's reflection that becoming or the subjective-now does not and cannot occur within physics. As a consequence, to date, physics does not incorporate time-transience, i.e. space-time does not evolve or have dynamics. As an analogy, in a geographic map, nothing indicates that one mountain vanishes and another appears, they all co-exist. Similarly, the passage of time has no fundamental or dynamical importance, it is merely an illusion. The new approach to time evolution incorporates becoming by utilizing the new Hilbert spaces introduced for each instant of time. (In contrast, traditionally one Hilbert space is used to represent the entire universe.) We then define a Super-Hamiltonian, which has as its ground state one entire history for the universe. Using another fundamental discovery we call internal and external reality, we associate the time of this Super-Hamiltonian with both awareness variables and processes related to wavefunction collapse. The evolution of awareness or consciousness is then associated with an adiabatic evolution of the Super-Hamiltonian. Because a single Now requires integration over all of the Super-Hamiltonian time, this new approach also illuminates the common phrase (e.g. by Bohm): now is the intersection of eternity and time.   C

76  Gravity minds? Parallels between the basic characters of the consciousness and the gravity.   Imre András Török, Gábor, Vincze <torokia@freemail.hu> (Department of Psychology, University of Szeged, Szentes, Hungary)
   Our discourse consists of two parts. First we draw an epistemological and phenomenological parallel between two, seemingly remote and the most overall phenomena of the world. With this our aim is to help people understand the mind deeper. At the moment neither the gravity (the missing link from the Grand Unified Theory) nor the conscious experience are explained in their origins. The extreme manifestations of the gravity produce such phenomena that correspond to the criteria of the consciousness determined by Hussler. In case of the black holes we can observe such closeness on the level of the phenomenon that is obvious in case of the subject. That is, the subjective experience of the individual is not accessible on the level of the experience, similarly to this, the inaccessibility of the space of the black hole is obvious in case of the physical phenomena, only their effects can be shown. Beside the phenomenological similarity of the features of the two basic phenomena, their explanation attempts are also similar in the mainstream natural science. In one hand the subjective experiences are considered to be the consequences of other basic phenomena, while the gravity itself seems to be on independent physical phenomenon. In the second part of the discourse we give provocatively and tentatively such a contesting explanation to the gravity and subjectivity that in the first case makes the origin of the gravity possible on mathematical and phyisical basic (as the consequences of a complex phenomenon), in the second case we give contesting explanations related to the materialistic reduction of the consciousness relying on biological evidences. The biological firmament of the reasoning will prove the fact that the phenomenon of ipseity cannot be reduced into a materialist level yet it can be placed in the scientific psychology.   C

77  Quantum information theory and the human brain: The special role for human unconscious information processing  Maurits Van den Noort, Peggy Bosch; Kenneth Hugdahl <Maurits.Noort@psybp.uib.no> (Dept. of Biological and Medical Psychology, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Bergen, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway)
   Concepts like entanglement, randomness, and complementarity have become the core principles of newly emerging quantum information technologies: quantum teleportation, quantum computation and quantum cryptography (Zeilinger, 2005). Although quantum computation promises to be a dominant form of information technology (e.g. Childress et al., 2006; Duan, Cirac, & Zoller, 2001), we do not know very much about the interaction between humans and quantum computers and the relation between quantum mechanics and (higher) brain functions yet (e.g. Koch & Hepp, 2006; Van den Noort & Bosch, 2006). In this presentation, behavioral studies and studies that focus on the peripheral- and the cortical level will be discussed that suggest a special role for unconscious (emotional) information processing in human computer interaction (Van den Noort, Hugdahl, & Bosch, 2005). The implications of these results both for human conventional computer and for human quantum computer interaction will be discussed. References: Childress, L., Gurudev Dutt, M. V., Taylor, J. M., Zibrov, A. S., Jelezko, F., Wrachtrup, J., Hemmer, P. R., & Lukin, M. D. (2006). Coherent Dynamics of Coupled Electron and Nuclear Spin Qubits in Diamond. Science, 314, 281-285. Duan, L. M., Cirac, J. I., & Zoller, P. (2001). Geometric Manipulation of Trapped Ions for Quantum Computation. Science, 292, 1695-1697. Koch, C., & Hepp, K. (2006). Quantum mechanics in the brain. Nature, 440, 611. Van den Noort, M. W. M. L., Hugdahl, K., & Bosch, M. P. C. (2005). Human Machine Interaction: The Special Role for Human Unconscious Emotional Information Processing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3784, 598-605. Van den Noort, M. W. M. L., & Bosch, M. P. C. (2006). Brain Cell Chatter. Scientific American Mind, 17(5), 4-5. Zeilinger, A. (2005). The message of the quantum. Nature, 438, 743.   C

78  Mental causation, common sense and quantum mechanics  Vadim Vasilyev <edm@rol.ru> (Philosophy, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia)
   Many authors who try to comprehend the nature of connection of consciousness with quantum processes believe that presence of consciousness in measurement procedures leads to the collapse of the wave function. In other words, they admit the causal efficacy of consciousness or qualia. It is quite obvious, however, that quantum events, taken as such, don’t reveal the causal efficacy of consciousness, and some well-known interpretations of quantum mechanics have no need for any assumption as regards the role of consciousness in quantum phenomena. Hence the importance of the quest for independent arguments in favor of reality of mental causation and refutation of epiphenomenalism. In the near past there were many interesting attempts to destroy epiphenomenalism – Elitzur (1989), Hasker (1999), Kirk (2005), among others. Their arguments are very sophisticated, but, as a rule, such arguments can be blocked with no less sophisticated counter arguments. The simplest refutation of epiphenomenalism would have taken place in the case of contradiction of this doctrine with intuitions of common sense. Most philosophers, however, believe this is not our case. Indeed, while common sense assures us that, for example, our desires, considered as qualia, have an influence on our behavior, in fact it only assures us about a kind of correlation between desires and behavior, correlation that might be an epiphenomenon of some basic neuronal processes. Nevertheless – and this is my main point – it is possible to show that common sense convictions presuppose causal efficacy of consciousness after all. That’s because without such an assumption I simply couldn’t believe that other people have conscious states. I believe they have these states or qualia like I have because of their physical and behavioral similarity with myself. My conclusion is based on simplicity considerations. But if I consider the conscious states as epiphenomena, the world in which only myself is conscious (perhaps due to some peculiar property of my brain) is much simpler than a world where others are encumbered with qualia as well. Indeed, in the first world there is no multiplying of entities which were truly unnecessary and useless for explanation of the reality given in my experience (Jackson (1982), Chalmers (1996) and Robinson (2007) missed this point). Thus, if I assume that consciousness is epiphenomenal, I would hardly believe other people have consciousness at all. But common sense dictates me to believe they have conscious minds. Hence, my common sense comprises an implicit denial of epiphenomenality of conscious states. So we see that in some cases our common sense may even favor quantum mechanics, or, to be more exact, may support one of its most radical interpretations. References. Chalmers, D. 1996. The Conscious Mind. New York: Oxford University Press. Elitzur, A. 1989. Consciousness and the incompleteness of the physical explanation of behavior. Journal of Mind and Bahavior 10: 1–20. Hasker, W. 1999. The Emergent Self. Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1999. Jackson, F. 1982. Epiphenomenal qualia. Philosophical Quarterly 32: 127–136. Kirk, R. 2005. Zombies and Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press. Robinson, W. 2007. Epiphenomenalism. Entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  C

79  Spinoza, Leibniz and Quantum Cosmology  Laura Weed <weedl@strose.edu> (Philosophy, The College of St. Rose, Albany, NY)
    During the Scientific Revolution, the mechanism of Isaac Newton and Rene Descartes triumphed over the more complex epistemological and metaphysical systems of Baruch Spinoza and G.W. Leibniz because the Spinozistic and Leibnizian systems seemed to speculate about unnecessary entities and forces, violating Ockham’s simplicity rule for scientific theories. In light of contemporary quantum mechanics, however, it may now be time to revisit some of the metaphysical an epistemological proposals of these two authors. I will propose three general metaphysical and epistemological positions espoused by one or both of these authors that may appear less speculative and extraneous to present day scientists than they did to their counterparts of the past. The general positions are 1) that parts and wholes interrelate forming an organic cosmos, rather than a congeries of compounded components; 2) that the totality of what exists exceeds human faculties and methodologies for acquiring knowledge; and 3) that the relationships among the varieties of temporal scales in the universe precludes a meaningful conception of universal mechanical causation. First, Leibniz, Spinoza and quantum mechanics agree that the world is not a computational result of adding parts. Rather, the cosmos is an organic system in which parts and wholes are mutually determining of one another. The paper will explore ways in which Leibnitzian monads, Spinozistic modes and the electrons in the Bell experiment reflect a holistic and inter-relational cosmos, rather than a compositional world. Second, while Newton and Descartes were both optimistic about the capacity of human knowledge to comprehend all there is, and to ultimately result in a grand unification of science, Spinoza and Leibniz both proposed perspectival and methodological limits on the human potential for knowledge. These limits are reflected, I shall argue, in the role of the observer in quantum theory, and in the Everett many-worlds hypothesis. Third, the concept of global mechanical causation proposed by Newton and Descartes presupposes a uniform global space-time, across which these causes might unfold. Both Spinoza and Leibniz understood time as a multi-layered phenomena, distinguishing among multiple local, regional and eternal conceptions of time. I will suggest that their paradigms might be more useful for interpreting Feynman’s proton and electron graphs metaphysically. Clearly, much of what Spinoza and Leibniz wrote is simply out of date and insufficiently prescient to be of any help with contemporary quantum understandings of reality. But I would like to propose that at least the three ideas articulated in this paper would be helpful in constructing a metaphysics and epistemology for the weirdness of the quantum world. Popular scientific conceptions of knowledge and reality have been wedded to Newtonian mechanistic materialism in ways that have become unhelpful for science. This new, although recycled, direction might be more productive.   C

80  Towards a Quantum Paradigm: An Integrated View of Matter and Mind  George Weissmann <georgeweis@aol.com> (Berkeley, CA)
    A fundamental paradigm is the set of conditioned structuring tendencies that shape our experience existentially, conceptually and perceptually. It is based on a set of embodied assumptions or presuppositions. We call the specific fundamental paradigm which grounds our culture’s common sense and scientific views and which structures our existential reality, the Classical Paradigm (CP). A critical examination and analysis of relativistic and quantum phenomena reveals that the assumptions which define the CP break down in large parts of the total phenomenal domain. Remarkably, a century since the relativity and quantum revolutions, we have not yet succeeded in developing a new fundamental paradigm, a Quantum Paradigm, that could naturally ground relativity and quantum physics ontologically.. The mainstream Copenhagen Interpretation of QT is instrumentalist and yields the procedures we so successfully use to calculate the probabilities of the various possible outcomes of an experiment, given its preparation. But it does not provide an account of what is actually occurring in an experiment. In fact, when one tries to interpret it ontologically, it suffers from inner inconsistencies (measurement problem). The Copenhagen interpretation suggests that the topic of QT is not the world itself, but our knowledge of the world, the structure of experience. Various alternative interpretations have been proposed over the years in an attempt to remedy QT’s lack of an ontology. Most of them remained attached to core CP assumptions, including objective realism, which imply banishing consideration of consciousness. Some of these attempts were shown to be incompatible with the predictions and the structure of QT itself, while others survived but suffer from significant shortcomings. As a result, we are still navigating science, our own lives and society on the basis of a fundamentally flawed world view. Our claim is: we cannot ground quantum theory in the CP. In particular, we can no longer banish experience/consciousness from the picture and still hope to understand what QT is telling us about the nature of the world. We report on some promising progress towards the development of a Quantum Paradigm which provides an ontology for QT and inextricably integrates matter and mind. Henry Stapp, building on foundations offered by Whitehead and Heisenberg, has proposed an ontological model which builds on the Copenhagen interpretation and describes an unfolding world process, consisting of events that are - in human terms - moments of our experience. The probabilistic dynamics (tendencies) of this process are described by quantum theory. We propose integrating into this framework the relational postulate of Carlo Rovelli, which states that there are no facts or occurrences in an absolute sense, that these are always relative to a measuring or perceiving system. We further take into account insights gained by consideration of experimentally observed anomalies which suggest that quantum events are not fundamentally random but more like “decisions”. Proceeding thus, we arrive at a rudimentary and preliminary but heuristically useful version of a QP which could ground QT as well as human experience including its observed “anomalies”, and which encounters no “hard problem of consciousness”.   C