1  Digital Solution of the Mind-Body Problem  Ralph Abraham, Sisir Roy <abraham@vismath.org> (Department of Mathematics, Santa Cruz, U.S.A.)
   Using the concepts of the mathematical theory of self-organizing systems in understanding the emergence of space-time at Planck scale, we proposed a digital solution of the mind-body problem. This will shed new light on the interconnection of consciousness and the physical world.  PL

2  The role of quantum cooperativity in neural signaling  Gustav Bernroider, Johann Summhammer <gustav.bernroider@sbg.ac.at> (Neurobiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria)
   According to the neural doctrine (1), propagating membrane potentials establish the basis for coding and communication in the nervous system. The physical representation of information is assumed to be contained in the spatio-temporal characteristic of propagating membrane potentials as originally described by Hodgkin and Huxley (HH, 2). Despite an uncountable number of correlation studies employing HH-type signals (action potentials, APs) and brain function , the underlaying equations of motion contain coupled dynamics of channel proteins and membrane voltage that still lack a consistent theoretical background. Generally, there is no fine grained level of precision in the correlation of action potentials with higher level brain functions and there are several inconsistencies behind experimental observations and HH type predictions. Action potentials are composed from the concerted flow of ions through aqueous membrane pores provided by a family of voltage sensitive membrane proteins. In a circular type of argumentation, selective permeability determines membrane voltage and membrane voltage determines permeability. There is no ‘window’ in the chain of events that could account for two indispensable features that are observed in ‘real’ neuronal ensembles and considered to be decisive in the exploration of cognitive processes: (i) large ongoing variability to repeated sensory representations as observed in the visual cortex more than ten years ago (3) and (ii) signal onset-rapidness in cortical neurons as shown previously (4). Both phenomena cannot be explained by classical HH type models. Further, in the view of recent advances in the atomic level reconstructions and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the originally proposed independence of within channel states (the ‘gating particles’ in the HH model) and independent gating states between channels seems to be untenable. In the present work we introduce quantum mechanical (QM) correlations (entanglement) into the dynamics of single channels and into the temporal evolution of multiple channel states. This is justified by at least two good reasons, (i) the gating transitions within channel proteins are established at the atomic scale, involving QM action orders at least over a certain number of vibrational periods of the engaged atoms, and ii) the states of the channel are not mutually independent as assumed in the classical model. Droping the assumption of independent gating transitions, we introduce a model where sub-domains of the protein responsible for selectivity and permeation are in a short entangled state. The entanglement of gating domains implies that their probabilistic switching behaviour will be governed by some coordinaton, while each gating domain itself still appears fully random. The underlaying model parameters can be tuned from independence, attaining the classical HH behaviour, to a two, three or more particle quantum mechanical entangled version. Our results show, that even with a very moderate assumption on the strength of entanglement that could resist the breaking power of the thermal bath to which the protein is exposed, the signal onset can be several times faster than predicted by the HH model and is in accord with the observed in-vivo response of cortical neurons (4). This is a particularly important result in the view of the persistant debate about the survival time of coherent states in the brain. Further,we show that quantum correlations of channel states allow for ongoing signal variations that are observed in evoked cortical responses. (1) Barlow, H (1972) Perception, 1, 371-394. (2) Hodgkin, A.L. and Huxley, A.F (1952) J Physiol (London), 117,500-544. (3) Arieli, A, Sterkin, A, Grinvald, A, Ad Aertsen (1996) Science, 273, 1868-1871. (4) Naundorf, B, Wolf F, M Volgushev (2006) Nature, 440, 1060-1063   PL

3  Schrodinger's Cat: Empirical research into the radical subjective solution of the measurement problem.  Dick Bierman, Stephen Whitmarsh <d.j.bierman@uva.nl> (PN, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
   The most controversial of all solutions of the measurement problem holds that a measurement is not completed until a conscious observation is made. In other words quantum physics is a science of potentialities and the measurement i.c. the conscious observation brings about the reality by reducing the state vector to one of the Eigen-states. In a series of experiments modeled after the famous experiment by the Shimony group we have explored the brain responses of observers of a quantum event. In about 50% of the exosures this quantum event had already been observed about one second earlier by another person. This random manipulation was unknown to the final observer. The first experiment along these lines gave suggestive evidence for a difference in brain responses dependent on the manipulation. In subsequent experiments quantum events were mixed with classical events and the results of these experiments that have been reported elsewhere were ambiguous. In a final experiment we are trying to solve the paradoxical results obtained so far. In this experiment the final observer receives detailed information about the type of event that (s)he observes. Also the experimental protocol is such that not only pre-observed events cannot be distinguished from not pre-observed events on the basis of their physical characteristic but neither on the basis of inter-event time distributions. Results will be presented at the conference.   PL

4  EEG Gamma Coherence Changes and Spiritual Experiences During Ayahuasca  Frank Echenhofer <fechenhofer@ciis.edu> (Clinical Psychology, California Institute of Integral Studies, Richmond, CA)
   Ayahuasca is a psychedelic sacramental brew used possibly for more than a thousand years by many indigenous communities of the Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon and by several syncretic religions that originated in 20th century Brazil and that combine ayahuasca shamanism and Christianity. In the last decade, a growing number of North Americana and Europeans have combined ayahuasca shamanism with other religious cosmologies and practices. Some ayahuasca reports are similar to archetypal spiritual experiences at the core of many religions. Studies have shown that authentic non-drug induced spiritual experiences cannot be distinguished from psychedelic spiritual experiences. Religious studies have suggested that psychedelics may have inspired the formative revelations of many shamanic cosmologies, some Greek mystery religions, the Hindu Vedas, and several ancient South and Central American religious traditions. Archetypal spiritual experiences, such as experiencing mandalas, journeying to other worlds, and encountering entities, are documented in monotheistic religions, ayahuasca shamanism, and in ayahuasca reports of North Americans and Europeans. Most spiritual traditions agree that waking consciousness can be transformed to reveal a more comprehensive reality. Studying ayahuasca may provide a reliable laboratory approach to use neuroscience and systematic phenomenological methods to reveal the neural correlates of archetypal spiritual experiences. Our findings, using a multi-disciplinary approach integrating the methods of comparative religion, anthropology, and qEEG, will be presented. Recently psilocybin was reported to facilitate profoundly meaningful experiences in healthy individuals. A psilocybin clinical trial designed to facilitate spiritual experiences in terminal patients has shown initial positive results. Research with a Brazilian ayahuasca religion found that long term users of ayahuasca had overcome alcohol addiction and neuropsychological testing revealed no detrimental effects. Previous psychedelic EEG research found theta and alpha power decreased during mescaline, psilocybin, and LSD, while some individuals showed increased modal alpha frequency. It has been theorized that EEG gamma coherence “binds” different modalities of cortical information processing. Because ayahuasca reports emphasize that the sensory, affective, cognitive, and spiritual modalities of experiencing are more integrated, we hypothesized that ayahuasca would enhance gamma coherence. Our research found that after 45 minutes of ingesting ayahuasca, participants reported the most intense consciousness alterations, or “peaking”. Some reported very brilliant and unusual fast morphing visions comprised of dazzling colors, multiple layers, and exquisitely beautiful architectural structures. Some participants reported that music modulated the physiognomic aspects of the experiential display. Others experienced fear, being overwhelmed, and nausea and vomiting, all which are viewed in shamanism as bodily cleansing and healing. A few reported classical archetypal journey experiences, gaining entry to and exploring other realms of reality and communicated with intelligent entities. In eyes closed ayahuasca vs. baseline conditions, ayahuasca decreased alpha and theta power suggesting enhanced activation and information processing and enhanced gamma coherence suggesting increased “binding” of sensory, affective, and cognitive processes. Some participants showed significant coherence changes in other EEG frequencies suggesting the importance of examining individual differences in future research. Our findings suggest ayahuasca may enhance both binding and cognitive complexity exemplified in feelings of interconnectedness and meaningfulness during archetypal spiritual experiences.   PL

5  Why Quantum Mind to begin with? A Proof for the Incompleteness of the Physical Account of Behavior   Avshalom Elitzur <Avshalom.Elitzur@weizmann.ac.il> (Univ, Rehovot, Israel)
   Should quantum mechanics be applied to the study of consciousness? For this workshop’s participants the answer is obvious, but mainstream science maintains that the burden of proof is on them. Penrose (1995) has put forward an ingenious argument that mathematical invention is non-algorithmic, but this argument failed to convince the mathematical community. This presentation presents a simpler argument of this kind. On the grounds of classical physics alone it is possible to prove that any physical description of behavior is, in principle, incomplete. Every simple analysis of a particular conscious experience, like that of a certain color or tone (a “quale“) reveals an ingredient that is not reducible to physical laws. While this is disturbing enough, worse consequences await any theory that allows these qualia to play any causal role in behavior. Chalmers (1996) has intensively studied the “zombie,” a hypothetical human being that acts only by physical laws without having qualia. He then purported to prove that such a being must manifest all the actions manifested by a conscious human, including the assertion that consciousness is not explained by physical law. This way Chalmers hoped to maintain the closure of the physical world without denying that consciousness is a genuine phenomenon. I present a logical proof that Chalmers’ argument is flatly wrong. Some form of dualism of the worst kind, namely interactive dualism, may be inescapable. I begin by showing that a zombie can never perceive a genuine contradiction between the physical mechanism underlying her perception and her immediate conscious experience. Zombies cannot – but humans do. From this difference it rigorously follows that consciousness, as something distinct by nature from any physical force, interferes with the brain’s operation. The ways out of this conclusion are very few: 1. Dismiss consciousness as illusory, due to some kind of misperception afflicting numerous thinkers and scientists. In this case, “misperception” being a physical phenomenon by the very tenets of physicalism, the burden of proof is now back on mainstream physics: Future neurophysiology must be able to point out the particular failure in the human brain’s operation which is responsible for many people’s belief that consciousness and brain mechanisms are not identical. 2. Concede that energy and/or momentum conservation laws do not always hold. This option ensures mainstream physics’ antagonism. 3. Concede that the second law of thermodynamics does not always hold. This option too is bound to be vehemently opposed by the physical community. Since option (1) is en empirical question, the entire issue is no longer confined to philosophy. The answer is bound to come from scientific research. Returning to quantum mechanics, it is striking that, despite its abandonment of many basic notions of classical physics, it has never seriously considered options (2) and (3). I propose no solution to this problem. My aim is only to show that the riddle of consciousness is much more acute than usually believed, yet it can be resolved scientifically.   PL

6  Realistic Superstring Mechanisms for Quantum Neuronal Behavior  John Hagelin <hagelinj@aol.com> (Physics, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, IA)
   The abundance of "hidden sector" matter in the world today is a nearly inescapable conclusion of realistic superstring theories. Hidden sector matter provides a natural mechanism for macroscopic quantum coherent phenomena in biological systems, where characteristically high temperatures normally preclude such quantum behavior. String theory thus provides a plausible solution to the central challenge in quantum-mind research, namely, "how can the quantum-mechanical mechanisms one would naturally associate with consciousness possibly be supported by the human brain?" Elaboration: Many have speculated that aspects of conscious experience have their physical origin in quantum-mechanical mechanisms. The most challenging associated question has been, "How does the brain--a predominantly macroscopic organ immersed in a high-temperature, high-entropy environment--support quantum-mechanical mechanisms?" Whereas intracellular quantum-mechanisms have been proposed, it is probably essential that a complete quantum-mechanical understanding of consciousness will require quantum correlations that are inter-cellular--i.e., collective correlations among multiple neurons separated by macroscopic distances. Until now, fully viable quantum mechanisms have been elusive. We propose a plausible explanation for stable, large-scale quantum-mechanical coherence based on new physical mechanisms predicted by the superstring. All realistic string models contain "hidden sector" particles and forces, typically including a massless spin-1 "quasi-photon" and at least one light charged scalar meson. Whereas it had been previously assumed that these hidden sector particles interact only gravitationally with normal ("observable sector") fields, it now appears more likely that there is a weak electromagnetic coupling between the two worlds of matter. The hidden sector world is spatially and temporally coincident with ours, but due to its weak coupling, is only dimly observable through dedicated EM detectors currently under development. Also due to its weak coupling, hidden sector matter does not equilibrate thermally with ordinary matter, and thus the hidden sector ambient temperature is calculated to be a few degrees Kelvin--similar to the cosmic neutrino background. This has two important physical ramifications: 1) Hidden sector matter, despite its weak coupling, clings electrostatically to normal matter--especially to carbon-based biological matter. Its concentration in the cellular interior is predicted to be high. 2) Due to its low ambient temperature, hidden sector particles are expected to exhibit macroscopic quantum coherent effects, and provide a viable mechanism for short-circuiting synaptic communication and for sustaining large-scale quantum correlation among distant neurons. In this talk, we present what it currently known about hidden sector matter and its potential relevance to quantum-mechanical biological functioning, and suggest avenues of future empirical and theoretical research. We also present published experimental evidence for long-range "field effects" of consciousness, that provide empirical support for the aforementioned quantum effects, and that help to discriminate among competing quantum-mechanical models of consciousness.   PL

7  Schrödinger’s proteins: How quantum biology can explain consciousness   Stuart Hameroff <hameroff@u.arizona.edu> (Center for Consciousness Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona)
   Classical approaches to consciousness view brain neurons, axonal spikes/firings and chemical synaptic transmissions as fundamental information bits and switches in feed-forward and feedback networks of “integrate-and-fire” neurons. However this popular view 1) fails to account for unconscious-to-conscious transitions, binding, and the ‘hard problem’ of subjective experience, 2) forces the stark conclusion that consciousness is an epiphenomenal illusion and 3).conflicts with the two best correlates of consciousness: gamma synchrony EEG and anesthesia, both of which indicating that consciousness occurs primarily in dendrites (i.e. during collective integration - rather than fire - phases of integrate-and-fire). Gamma synchrony EEG requires dendro-dendritic gap junctions (lateral connections in hidden input layers of feed-forward network) and may require non-local quantum correlations to account for precise brain-wide coherence. Anesthetic gases selectively erase consciousness and gamma synchrony EEG, sparing evoked potentials, sub-gamma EEG, autonomic drives and axonal spike/firing capabilities. The anesthetic gases act solely by quantum London forces in non-polar pockets of electron resonance clouds within a subset of dendritic proteins. In the absence of anesthetic (i.e. consciousness), quantum superposition, coherence and non-local entanglement in these electron clouds are amplified to govern protein conformation and function, Thus anesthetic-sensitive proteins may act like quantum bits (“qubits”), engaging in quantum computation (“Schrödinger’s proteins”). Scientists since Schrödinger have suggested an intrinsic role for biomolecular quantum effects in life and consciousness. The Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model proposes consciousness to be a sequence of gamma-synchronized discrete events, corresponding with quantum computations among entangled, superpositioned microtubule subunits in gap junction-connected dendrites (“dendritic webs”). Microtubule quantum computations self-collapse by Penrose objective reduction (OR), a proposed threshold tied to instability in spacetime geometry separations/superpositions. Thus Orch OR connects brain processes to fundamental spacetime geometry in which (according to Penrose) Platonic values are encoded. Classical microtubule states chosen with each Orch OR event can trigger axonal spikes and convey the content of conscious experience. Orch OR appears vulnerable to decoherence in the “warm, wet” brain. However evidence suggests 1) heat can pump (rather than destroy) biomolecular quantum processes, 2) quantum coherence involving proteins occurs biologically in photosynthesis, 3) quantum correlations may govern ion channel cooperativity, 4) psychoactive molecules interact with receptors by quantum correlations, 5) quantum computing occurs at increasingly warm temperatures, 6) microtubules appear to have intrinsic quantum error correction topology, and 7) “quantum protectorates” occur in regions of non-polar electron resonance clouds in proteins, membranes and nucleic acids. Further, atemporal quantum effects can account for the famous “backward time” found in the brain by Libet, and allow real-time control of our conscious actions, rescuing consciousness from epiphenomenal illusion. So what is consciousness? According to Orch OR, consciousness is a sequence of events in fundamental spacetime geometry, “ripples on the edge” between quantum and classical worlds. The spacetime events are amplified through quantum processes in non-polar electron resonance regions to causally influence biomolecular functions, perhaps connecting us to quantum gravity instantiations of Penrose Platonic values, Bohm’s “implicate order” or in some cases mystical, spiritual and/or altered state experiences. www.quantumconsciousness.org  PL

8  Do quantum phenomena provide objective evidence for consciousness?  Richard Healey <rhealey@email.Arizona.edu> (Philosophy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona)
   Kuttner and Rosenblum (2006a,b) argue that a theory-neutral version of the quantum two-slit experiment provides objective evidence for consciousness–indeed the only objective evidence. However, their description of the experiment is not theory neutral. Kuttner and Rosenblum’s argument that a particular experiment provides objective evidence for consciousness fails: their argument rests on dubious assumptions about the physical effects of consciousness for which we lack objective evidence. Reflecting on our current understanding of quantum theory is one nice way to illustrate this objection. Each of a variety of different interpretations of quantum theory rejects at least one key assumption of Kuttner and Rosenblum’s allegedly theory-neutral description. Moreover, these include interpretations within which consciousness plays no role. Perhaps none of those interpretations will prove acceptable. Quantum theory itself may one day be superseded by a superior theory. Neither eventuality would undermine my objection, which does not depend on quantum theory, under any interpretation. I suggest that if there is objective evidence for consciousness it will be manifested in a very different class of phenomena.   PL

9  Quantum Mechanical Implications for Mind-Body Issues  Menas Kafatos, S.Roy;K.H.Yang;R.Ceballos <mkafatos@crete.gmu.edu> (College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA)
   Many authors have speculated on the importance of quantum theory to brain dynamics and even its relevance to consciousness. In particular, mind-body issues, by their very nature, imply non-classical physics apparoaches. Quantum mechanics, through the role of the observer, the measurement theory and recent laboratory evidence at the ion channel level, may have serious implications for these issues. In the present paper, we explore the relevance of Quantum Mechancis and some possible ontological as well as laboratory issues.  PL

10  Principles of Quantum Buddhism  Francois Lepine <info@quantumbuddhism.org> (Quantum Buddhism Association, St-Raymond, Quebec, Canada)
   Science and religion have been opposed regarding consciousness since Descartes separated matter and mind: Cartesian dualism. Non-dualist approaches include scientific materialism in which matter produces mind, and idealism in which mind produces matter. On the other hand Buddhists (and neutral monists in western philosophy) believe mind and matter both derive from a deeper-lying common entity. In recent decades it has become evident that quantum physics and quantum gravity can provide a scientifically plausible accommodation of the Buddhist (and neutral monist) approach. In Buddhism the deeper-lying monistic entity is a pure Platonic wisdom of the Supreme Unified Consciousness which can give rise to matter and/or mind. In scientific terms it is the quantum geometry at the tiniest level (Planck scale) of the universe (quantum gravity), or the unified quantum field. Sir Roger Penrose proposed that Platonic forms including mathematical truth, ethical and aesthetic values (which Plato assumed to be abstract) exist as actual configurations of the Planck scale. Cosmic wisdom in Buddhist Supreme Unified Consciousness pervades the universe, involving, informing and interconnecting living and non-living beings. Planck scale quantum information encoding Platonic values – cosmic wisdom - is non-local and holographic, hence repeating everywhere, atemporally (“everywhen”) and at various scales. Buddhist Supreme Unified Consciousness manifests matter and/or mind. Quantum geometry gives rise to either matter or matter and mind, depending on whether quantum state reduction to classical states occurs via decoherence or measurement (in which case matter), or a type of threshold-based self reduction (e.g. Penrose objective reduction) giving matter and conscious mind. In Buddhism, conscious awareness in an individual – self consciousness - is a series of ripples on the universal pond of Supreme Unified Consciousness. In science, self-consciousness is a series of Penrose objective reductions, ripples in quantum geometry on the edge between the quantum world of multiple coexisting possibilities, and the classical world of definite states. In science, conscious ripples, or moments are coherently synchronized with gamma EEG brain waves, 40 or more conscious moments per second. In western philosophy these are Whitehead’s “occasions of experience”. Buddhism meditators report underlying flickering in their perception of reality, momentary collections of mental phenomena. Sarvaastivaadins described 6,480,000 "moments" in 24 hours (75 conscious moments per second), and other Buddhists as 50 per second. Meditating Tibetan Buddhist monks show highly coherent, high amplitude gamma synchrony EEG in the range of 80 per second, twice normal and more highly coherent. Samadhi is a Sanskrit word describing awareness in which sensory inputs, memory and self dissolve, a person’s consciousness becoming totally one with Supreme Unified Consciousness. Samadhi occurs during deep meditation. Scientifically, in altered states quantum brain activities may become more directly connected with the universal quantum geometry and its collective information. The Quantum Buddhism Association was founded in early 2007, and aims at providing a set of tools to develop a scientific-spiritual approach to the world, unburdened by traditional cultural ritualistic and dogmatic weight, where development of the self prevails to become a conscious scientific instrument.   PL

11  A new quantum gravitational model for consciousness based in geometric algebra   Javier Martin-Torres <fn.f.martin-torres@larc.nasa.gov> (Virtual Planetary Laboratory, AS&M, NASA, Hampton, VA)
   A new mathematical model for Quantum Consciousness based in geometric algebra and its results are presented. Two of the basic pillars of the model are the use of: i) gravity as an Orch OR mechanism (Hameroff and Penrose, 1996) and ii) the collective electrodynamics approach developed by Caver Mead (Mead, 2000), in which electromagnetic effects, including quantized energy transfer, derive from the interactions of the wavefunctions of electrons behaving collectively. Between other processes, a new mechanism for acusto-conformational transformation (ACT) by which Micro Tubules (MT) communicate with each other, and a decoherence upper limit are proposed. The model presented establishes a theoretical basis for one of the important (and not yet explained) points in Hameroff and Penrose’s work for quantum consciousness: why the global quantum superposition is the default state. An isomorphism between mono-dimensional binary Cellular Automata and the Clifford Algebra Cl(8) and its applications to the modeling of the consciousness, together with the main implications of the proposed model will be discussed. References Hameroff, S. and Penrose, R., Orchestrated Reduction Of Quantum Coherence In Brain Microtubules: A Model For Consciousness?, In: Toward a Science of Consciousness - The First Tucson Discussions and Debates, eds. Hameroff, S.R., Kaszniak, A.W. and Scott, A.C., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 507-540 (1996) Mead, C., Collective Electrodynamics: Quantum Foundations of Electromagnetism, The MIT Press; 1st edition (August 28, 2000).   PL

12  The Neuron: no longer the atom of neural computation  James Olds <jolds@gmu.edu> (Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA)
   Subsequent to the 1906 shared Nobel Prize of Cajal and Golgi, the neuron doctrine has been accepted as dogma to the nascent field that became neuroscience. The approximate number of 10^10 neurons in the human brain is often used to reference the immense complexity of the central nervous system, and entire sub-fields are based on the notion of the neuron as computational machine, integrating massive inputs across the dendritic tree to reach a “decision” regarding whether or not to fire an action potential. Here we put forward the notion that neuroscience has now moved substantially beyond the neuron doctrine. Neurons themselves contain multiple hierarchical levels of internal computational machinery (e.g. the Trans Golgi Network, spines, glutamate receptors, potassium channels) all of which can be said to contribute to the overall emergence of intelligent behavior and cognition. We propose that the true complexity of the human brain is far greater than has previously been accepted, and conclude that this requires a modification of the current reductionist approaches to neuroscience. Integrative neuroscience combined with approaches that have been successful with regards to other complex adaptive systems may provide a fruitful scientific direction for the field.   PL

13  Minding Quanta and Cosmology  Karl Pribram <pribramk@gmail.com> (George Mason University, Fairfax , VA)
   The revolution in science inaugurated by quantum physics made us aware of the role of observation in the construction of data. Eugene Wigner remarked that in quantum physics we no longer have observables (invariants) but only observations. Tongue in cheek I asked whether that meant that quantum physics is really psychology, expecting a gruff reply to my sassiness. Instead, Wigner beamed a happy smile of understanding and replied “yes, yes, that’s exactly correct.” David Bohm pointed out that, were we to look at the cosmos without the lenses of our telescopes, we would see a hologram. I have extended Bohm’s insight to the lens in the optics of the eye. The receptor processes of the ear and skin work in a similar fashion. Without these lenses and lens-like operations all of our perceptions would be entangled as in a hologram. Furthermore, the retina absorbs quanta of radiation so that quantum physics uses the very perceptions that become formed by it. In turn, the higher order systems send signals to the sensory receptors so that what we perceive is often as much a result of earlier rather than just immediate experience. This influence from “inside-out” becomes especially relevant to our interpretation of how we experience the contents and bounds of cosmology that come to us by way of radiation.   PL

14  Quantum jumps and explanatory gaps  Paavo Pylkkänen <paavo.pylkkanen@his.se> (Consciousness Studies Programme, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden)
   One reason why researchers ignore quantum theory in the explanation of consciousness is the mysterious nature of the theory. If we cannot make sense of the paradoxical features of quantum theory (e.g. wave-particle duality, discontinuity of motion, non-locality, collapse of the wave-function), how could we possibly hope that this theory will be of any help when trying to understand another mysterious phenomenon, namely consciousness? We thus first need a coherent interpretation of quantum theory which resolves the various paradoxes and provides us with an intelligible view of quantum phenomena. Equipped with such a view, we can then explore whether the place of mind in nature could be understood in a new, better way. If you like, we first need to close the explanatory gap in quantum theory, before we can use this theory to tackle the better known explanatory gap between matter and consciousness. In this talk I will discuss some philosophical problems of mind and consciousness in the light of Bohm’s interpretation of quantum theory which includes new notions such as implicate order and active information. This interpretation is arguably one of the best candidates for a coherent interpretation of quantum theory, although debate about these issues is ongoing. Of course, the crucial question for any attempt to make use of quantum theoretical ideas in this context is whether there are aspects of mind and consciousness that cannot be adequately explained and understood in terms of “classical” explanatory frameworks – i.e. neural and/or computational frameworks which do not make any significant appeal to quantum theory or to the New Physics more generally. There are, in fact, many aspects of mind/consciousness which pose a mystery to “classical” frameworks, but might be better understood in “quantum” frameworks. There is the problem of mental causation: if mental states are non-physical, how could they possibly affect physical processes without violating the laws of physics? If we assume that mental states are physical it becomes easier to understand their causal effect upon physical processes. But there are serious problems of conceiving of mental states (especially conscious states) as physical states, if “physical” is understood in the spirit of classical physics. There are also paradoxical aspects to the phenomenal structure of conscious experience, for example “time consciousness”, at least when one understands time in the spirit of classical physics. My proposal is that quantum theory, especially under its Bohmian interpretation, changes our key concepts (such as “physical”, “causation”, “time”, “space”, “process”, “movement”, “information”, “order”) in such a way as to open up a new and better way of understanding features such as mental causation and time consciousness. Such changes in our fundamental concepts also make it possible to tackle the hard problem of consciousness in a fresh way. References Bohm, D. & Hiley B.J. (1993) The Undivided Universe. An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory. London: Routledge. Hiley, B.J. & Pylkkänen, P. (2005) “Can Mind Affect Matter via Active Information”, Mind & Matter 3(2): 7-27. Pylkkänen, P. (2007) Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order. Heidelberg: Springer.   PL

15  Objective evidence for consciousness and free will in the quantum experiment   Bruce Rosenblum, Fred Kuttner <brucero@ucsc.edu> (Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA)
   In the absence of objective, third-person evidence of conscious experience, i.e. “qualia,” one can logically deny the very existence of consciousness beyond these correlates. Consciousness has, in fact, been claimed to be no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules. However, since the origins of quantum physics in the 1920s, consciousness has been seen by some to intrude into the physical world in a manner other than by its physiological and neural correlates. In this view, objective evidence for a physically efficacious consciousness actually exists. The experimental facts, at least, are undisputed. We will illustrate what can be considered a physical manifestation of consciousness with a theory-neutral description of a quantum mechanical thought experiment that can be realized in practice. We will argue that the only escape from our conclusion must be to deny one's ability to freely (or randomly) choose behavior. Moreover, such denial of "free will" must also involve a strange and unexplained connectivity between physical phenomena. Therefore the conclusion that consciousness itself, though yet unexplained, is physically efficacious is at least as modest a hypothesis as any other. This thesis is developed in our recent book, "Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness," Oxford University Press, 2006.   PL

16  Aspects of Cosmic Consciousness in the Non-material and Non-empirical Forms of Physical Reality.   Lothar Schäfer <schafer@uark.edu> (Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Arkansas, AR)
   The quantum phenomena have shown that reality appears to us in two domains: one is open and empirical and forms the world of seemingly separated, material things. The other is hidden and non-empirical and consists of interconnected, non-material forms. The former is the realm of actuality; the latter, the realm of potentiality in physical reality. Discovering the realm of forms places contemporary physics into the center of powerful historic traditions of spirituality, in which non-material forms were considered as primary reality and connected with a Cosmic Consciousness out of which everything is emanating. The lecture will describe some of the parallels and explore to what extent the quantum phenomena support the view that the primary reality has aspects of mind. In the quantum structure of empirical systems, the non-material forms exist as empty states, called virtual by quantum chemists. The entire universe can be considered a quantum system. Its occupied states form the visible part of reality; its empty states, the non-empirical part. Everything that is visible is the actualization of some quantum states. Everything that is possible is deposited in virtual states. Thus, the complex order in the biosphere does not emerge out of nothing and is not created by chance, as Darwinians claim, but it emerges by the actualization of virtual states whose logical order already exists in the non-empirical part of reality before it is expressed in the empirical realm.   PL

17  Experiments in Retrocausation  Daniel Sheehan <dsheehan@sandiego.edu> (Physics, University of San Diego, San Diego, California)
   The fundamental laws of physics are time symmetric, equally admitting time-forward and time-reversed solutions. That the former are readily observed while the latter are not presents perhaps the starkest asymmetry in nature: the unidirectionality (one-way arrow) of time. Common notions of causation are tightly bound with this asymmetry, as are also the phenomena of consciousness. While causation has long been taken for granted, retrocausation (the future influencing the past) has not. Over the last few decades, however, this situation has changed as theory has begun to admit more freely this possibility and experiments -- e.g., from orthodox quantum mechanics, physiology, and parapsychology -- have begun to provide quantitative evidence for retrocausal effects [1]. In this talk, seminal experiments purporting retrocausation will be reviewed and an attempt will be made to put them into a general theoretical framework. From this more decisive experiments should emerge. [1] "Frontiers of Time: Retrocausation -- Experiment and Theory," AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 863, D.P. Sheehan, editor (American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2006).  PL

18  Whiteheadian Quantum Ontology: The emergance of participating conscious observers from an unconscious physical quantum universe.  Henry Stapp <hpstapp@lbl.gov> (Theoretical Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA )
   The inability of classical physical concepts to accomodate consciousness is noted,and is contrasted to the way that orthodox von Neumann-Heisenberg quantum theory beautifully does so. Close parallels between the detailed structure of ontologically construed relativistic quantum field theory and the ontology proposed by Alfred North Whitehead are noted, and the way that Whiteheadian philosophy accounts for the natural emergence of local pockets of participatory consciousness from a physical world initially devoid of consciousness is explained.  PL

19  Quantum Ideas and Biological Reality: the Warm Quantum Computer?   Marshall Stoneham <ucapams@ucl.ac.uk> (London Centre for Nanotechnology and Physics and Astronomy, University College London , London, United Kingdom)
   Quantum ideas take many forms. The recognition that matter is quantised as atoms underpins the chemical industry. The recognition that charge is quantised as electrons lies at the core of microelectronics. But the several phenomena we identify as “quantum” are subtle, encompassing exclusion, tunnelling, limits to measurement, and entanglement. These ideas are less intuitive and less tangible at the macroscopic (human) scale. Yet, when our science approaches the nanoscale, there is no way to avoid quantum phenomena. Moreover, as ideas spread from the purely physical sciences to the biosciences, it appears that nature already exploits quantum behaviour even at ambient temperatures in unexpected ways, e.g., in vision and in olfaction. There are also credible ideas for condensed matter processing of quantum information even at room temperature, and some are based on soft matter. These proposals and some experiments, exploiting entanglement, rightly contradict the widely-held physicist views that quantum information processing is possible only at cryogenic temperatures. Yet it is far less clear that the brain exploits quantum entanglement. Any suggestion that similar entanglement-based mechanisms might operate in the brain still has to meet plenty of challenges, first as to the actual atomic-scale processes exploited, and secondly as to how a quantum computer might handle problems more like a brain than like an enhanced classical computer.  PL

20  Why is consciousness soluble in chloroform ?  Luca Turin <lucaturin@mac.com> (Physics, University College London, London, England, UK)
   It is now quite clear that the target of general anaesthetic gases is protein, and there is good evidence that neurotransmitter receptors are involved. Exactly which protein(s) anaesthetic gases act on, and by what mechanism, remains to be determined. I shall describe empirical and computational evidence in support of the idea that general anaesthetics act not allosterically, but by altering protein electron chemical potential. I shall discuss the relevance of this notion to both protein electronics and redox regulatory mechanisms.   PL

21  Electrodynamic signaling by the dendritic cytoskeleton: towards an intracellular information processing model.  Jack Tuszynski, Avner Priel; Horacio F. Cantiello <jtus@phys.ualberta.ca> (Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada)
   A novel model for information processing in dendrites is proposed based on electrodynamic signaling mediated by the cytoskeleton. Our working hypothesis is that the dendritic cytoskeleton, including both microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments plays an active role in computations affecting neuronal function. These cytoskeletal elements are affected by, and in turn regulate, a key element of neuronal information processing, namely, dendritic ion channel activity. We present a molecular dynamics description of the C-termini protruding from the surface of a MT that reveals the existence of several conformational states, which lead to collective dynamical properties of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Furthermore, these collective states of the C-termini on MTs have a significant effect on ionic condensation and ion cloud propagation with physical similarities to those recently found in actin-filaments and microtubules. We report recent experimental findings concerning both intrinsic and ionic conductivities of microfilaments and microtubules which strongly support our hypothesis about an internal processing capabilities in neurons. Our ultimate objective is to provide an integrated view of these phenomena in a bottom-up scheme, demonstrating that ionic wave interactions and propagation along cytoskeletal structures impacts channel functions, and thus neuronal computational capabilities. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by NSERC, MITACS, PIMS, US Department of Defense, Technology Innovations, LLC and Oncovista, LLC.   PL

22  Dissipative many-body dynamics of the brain   Giuseppe Vitiello, Walter J. Freeman Affiliation: Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720-3206 USA <vitiello@sa.infn.it> (of Physics "E.R.Caianiello", University of Salerno, Italy, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy)
   Imaging of scalp potentials and cortical surface potentials of animal and human from high-density electrode arrays has demonstrated the dynamical formation of patterns of synchronized oscillations in neocortex in the beta and gamma ranges (12-80 Hz). They re-synchronize in frames at frame rates in the theta and alpha ranges (3-12 Hz) and extend over spatial domains covering much of the hemisphere in rabbits and cats, and over domains of linear size of about 19 cm in human cortex with near zero phase dispersion [1]. The agency of the collective neuronal activity is neither the electric field of the extracellular dendritic current nor the magnetic fields inside the dendritic shafts, which are much too weak, nor is the chemical diffusion, which is much too slow. By resorting to the dissipative quantum model of brain [2], we describe [3] the field of activity of immense number of synaptically interactive cortical neurons as the phenomenological manifestation of the underlying dissipative many-body dynamics such as the one responsible of the formation of ordered patterns and phase transitions in condensed matter physics in quantum field theory. We stress that neurons and other brain cells are by no means considered quantum objects in our analysis. The dissipative model explains two main features of the electroencephalogram data: the textured patterns correlated with categories of conditioned stimuli, i.e. coexistence of physically distinct synchronized patterns, and their remarkably rapid onset into irreversible sequences resembling cinematographic frames. Each spatial pattern is described to be consequent to spontaneous breakdown of symmetry triggered by external stimulus and is associated with one of the unitarily inequivalent ground states. Their sequencing is associated to the non-unitary time evolution in the dissipative model. The dissipative model also explains the change of scale from the microscopic quantum dynamics to the macroscopic order parameter field, and the classicality of trajectories in the brain state space. The dissipative quantum model enables an orderly description that includes all levels of the microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic organization of the cerebral patterns. By repeated trial-and-error each brain constructs within itself an understanding of its surround, the knowledge of its own world that we describe as its Double [4]. The relations that the self and its surround construct by their interactions constitute the meanings of the flows of information exchanged during the interactions. [1] W. J. Freeman, Origin, structure, and role of background EEG activity. Part 1 & 2, Clin. Neurophysiol. Vol. 115, 2077 & 2089 (2004); Part 3 Vol. 116, 1118 (2005) ; Part 4. Vol.117, 572 (2006). [2] G. Vitiello, Dissipation and memory capacity in the quantum brain model, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 9, 973 (1995). quant-ph/9502006. [3] W. J. Freeman and G. Vitiello, Nonlinear brain dynamics as macroscopic manifestation of underlying many-body dynamics, Phys. of Life Reviews 3, 93 (2006), q-bio.OT/0511037. Brain dynamics, dissipation and spontaneous breakdown of symmetry, q-bio.NC/0701053v1 [4] G. Vitiello, My Double Unveiled. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2001.   PL

23  Subcellular processing related to memory and consciousness by microtubules and MAP2  Nancy Woolf <nwoolf@ucla.edu> (Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA)
   Among the various parts of the neuron, dendrites are arguably the best candidates for being key to higher cognitive function because they alone integrate large numbers of inputs. The neuronal membrane is the initial site of response to inputs from other neurons, but what lies beneath the neuronal membrane controls the level of synaptic response by computing new inputs relative to information stored in memory. Dendrites are enriched with microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs); yet we do not fully know the purpose of these proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that microtubules and MAPs play critical roles in memory and consciousness, as well as in neuronal transport. Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) is a dendrite-specific cytoskeletal protein that also acts as a signal transduction molecule, mediating internal chemical responses following synaptic release of neurotransmitters glutamate and acetylcholine. MAP2 and microtubules bind together to form a matrix that stores memory: as new memories form, MAP2 and tubulin proteolysis or breakdown occurs followed by a new subcellular architecture, structured as a modified microtubule matrix (Woolf, NJ, Progress in Neurobiology, 55:59-77,1998). Information stored in the microtubule matrix is then accessed upon the release of certain neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and glutamate. Acetylcholine controls the level of consciousness mainly through its muscarinic receptor resulting in downstream activation of kinases PKC and CaMKII, both of which phosphorylate MAP2 and participate in memory. Phosphorylation of MAP2 affects its interaction with microtubules, leading to possible alterations in the protein conformation of tubulin subunits and subsequently to the ability of microtubules to transport receptors, cytoskeletal proteins, and mRNA to synapses. Because of their downstream activation by neurotransmitters, microtubules are in a position to compute current synaptic inputs in the context of previous synaptic activity, and then to increase transport of certain learning-related molecules to synapses. No synapse acting in isolation can bring about a mental state of consciousness: it is instead necessary to have co-activation of a large number of synapses for conscious activity to arise. En masse transport of essential synaptic proteins by microtubules is needed to sustain enhanced synaptic activity, and it is possible that quantum level computations play a role in directing coherent transport both locally and non-locally. We have previously proposed that acetylcholine facilitates quantum computations in microtubules by phosphorylating MAP2 (Woolf NJ & Hameroff SR, Trends in Cognitive Science, 5:472-8, 2001). In this presentation, I propose that the pattern of MAP2 binding to the microtubule forms a gel-based contour which represents information stored by the learning mechanism and provides a physical basis for realizing that stored information (Woolf, NJ, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 30:219-22, 2006). When MAP2 is phosphorylated, this gel-based contour expands along a given microtubule and affects the propagation of information longitudinally down the microtubule, and tangentially, the contour affects the state of neighboring microtubules. In these two ways, physically activated microtubules transmit a particular pattern related to a barrage of current inputs in the context of information stored in memory resulting in a coherent response spanning multiple synapses.   PL

24  The Truth-Observable: A link between logic and the unconscious  Paola Zizzi <zizzi@math.unipd.it> (Mathematics, University of Padova, Padova, Italy)
   In Quantum Mechanics, an external measurement of the physical state of a closed quantum system is described mathematically in terms of quantum operators, by which one defines physical observables satisfying the completeness relation: summing up the observables yields the identity. The logical meaning of the completeness relation is that the logical truth splits into partial truths, each of them corresponding to an act of measurement from outside. This is due to the physical fact that any external measurement is an irreversible process, which destroys quantum superposition. Then, an external observer can grasp only fragments of an inner, global truth. Only an internal observer would be able to achieve the global truth at once, as a whole, by making an internal measurement [1], as inside the closed quantum system, he can perform only reversible transformations, described by unitary operators U. The uniqueness and unitarity of such measurement operators allow defining a unique quantum observable that is just the identity: the truth-observable [2]. Notice that in quantum computing [3], U is a quantum logic gate. Then, in this case, an internal measurement corresponds to a quantum computational process. In the theory of a quantum-computing mind [4], we believe that there exists a deepest unconscious state that cannot be known directly from outside. We argue that it is the deep unconscious, which can achieve the "truth" as a whole; the conscious mind can grasp only partial "truths". Quantum information is processed by the unconscious and then is made available to our conscious mind as classical information. As a quantum computer is (due to quantum parallelism) much faster than its classical counterpart, the task done by the unconscious is fundamental to prepare our classical reasoning. The unconscious, endowed with global knowledge (the truth-observable), is rich enough to originate creativity. Global knowledge and creativity together is what enables us to use metalanguage, which makes us so different from (classical) computers, imprisoned in their object language. But also, the truth-observable might be placed at the heart of the logical study of the most severe mental diseases (like schizophrenia) which are very hard to be cured psychoanalytically. On the other hand, less deep unconscious states (pre-conscious) are psychoanalytically interpretable from outside. For example, subjective experiences, which cannot be directly communicated (but only interpreted) should be included in the pre-conscious, not in consciousness. In fact, a shared knowledge (in Latin: cum-scio from which derives the English consciousness) is impossible without communication. References [1] P. Zizzi, “Qubits and Quantum Spaces”, International Journal of Quantum Information Vol. 3, No.1 (2005): 287-291. [2] P. Zizzi, “Theoretical setting of inner reversible quantum measurements”, Mod. Phys. Lett. A, Vol. 21, No.36 (2006): 2717-2727. [3] M. A. Nielsen, I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, Cambridge University Press (2000). [4] S. Hameroff, R. Penrose, “Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness”. In: Toward a Science of Consciousness. The First Tucson discussions and Debates. Eds. S. Hameroff, A. kaszniak, and A. Scott. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1996).   PL